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Wu Wenzao: Chinese diplomat

Release time: 2020-05-25: Source: A biographical sketch of Wu Wenzao

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After the end of the second world war against fascism, Japan was jointly owned by the four countries of the United States, China, Britain and the Soviet Union. The Allied Control Committee on Japan was established, and four countries sent one delegation to Japan. In March 31, 1946, the delegation of the Republic of China headed by Zhu Shiming flew to Tokyo, Japan on Chinese special plane and landed at the thick wood airport. This is the first time a Chinese plane has landed in Japan. In August 16th, on the 1st anniversary day of the victory of the war of resistance against Japan, Wu Wenzao flew to Tokyo on the Northwest Airlines flight to serve as the political leader and allied negotiation consultant of the Chinese delegation to the Japanese Alliance.

After Wu Wenzao arrived in Tokyo, in August 24th, the Japanese parliament passed the revised constitution of Japan. The political group has retained all the new revised constitution texts. Wu Wenzao studied them one by one, and found that none of the official documents of the Supreme Allied Command of the Allied forces was available in all the revised documents, nor did the text of Macarthur's official speech. In fact, the whole world knows that the revision of Japan's new constitution was carried out under the manipulation of the US occupation army (form of allied forces) and by Macarthur. The system of the Mikado and the form of democracy in the constitution all reflected the will and values of the United States. Wu Wenzao came to the Secretary and asked if the documents were complete. The answer is yes, Macarthur did not have any speech fixed in the form of text, but everything was carried out under his guidance. In November 1st, as a consultant, Wu Wenzao attended the meeting of the allies on Japan's upcoming constitution of Japan. The third day after the briefing, that is, in November 3rd, the constitution of Japan was revised and passed. The celebration was held throughout the country and the Emperor himself attended. Wu Wenzao attended the celebration of Tokyo on the seat of the allied committee on Japan. Seeing clearly, the emperor's expression on that day seemed very relaxed.

  

In 1947, Wu Wenzao, Bing Xin and little daughter Wu Qing were in Japan.

After a temporary stay at the official residence of the delegation, the Wu Wenzao family moved to a newly decorated single family diplomat. After having a house, Wu Wenzao regained his old good fortune. Often go to Shibuya or Ginza antique market, holding back old bags and old paintings, Chinese, Japanese, ancient, modern, picture books, calligraphy and painting, and engraving ancient books, like it will be included in the arms. After the war, Japan's livelihoods were the first, calligraphy and painting antiques were unsought. Wu Wenzao paid well, besides the salaries of the Ministry of foreign affairs, the salary of the delegation in Japan, and even the allowance of the allies. On one occasion, two couples visited the shallow grass Temple, and found a martial art Koji Miatsushi's pomegranate map in the not abundant tourism and calligraphy shops. The two people almost screamed, but they still restrained their excitement and paid the painting in a pocket at a low price. On the way home, Bing Xin told Wu Wen Chao Takekoji Miatsushi's situation and Takekoji Mi's works she had read. Wu Wenzao said that after the war, some calligraphers and painters sold their works through different channels in exchange for food. The Japanese can not afford to buy. Foreigners, except diplomats and journalists, are hard to enter, so it's a good time to collect them. Gu Yuxiu took the lead and brought back many old goods, several of which were plundered by Japan during the war.

But in 1948, for a whole year, the Wu Wenzao family was in a state of distraction. First of all, it was not the same as the new head of the regiment, who took over the head of the delegation of the Republic of China in 1947. Wu Wenzao asked for his resignation at all times, and there had been "three days in a row for three days." It was too late to quit. Meanwhile, the news of domestic chaos, soaring prices, student movement, and the defeat of the national army, etc., were transmitted to Tokyo through various channels, and the Republic of China, which was originally represented by the delegation, was already at stake. Wu Wenzao Bing Xin, who was eager to return home, was totally at a loss. "Beiping has guns," Jing Chao wrote today. We became a lost dog.

Under the leadership of Wu Wenzao, the second group of delegations usually had a strong learning atmosphere. By the end of 1948, in the face of the political situation in China, the usual learning had become a spontaneous discussion. Wu Wenzao took the lead. Xie Nanguang, Qu Luochen, Wang Xinzhong, Zhu Bingnan and Chen Yaoting were the basic personnel. Subsequently, the head of the economic group, Wu Bannong, also joined in and introduced the joining of the same group. Bing Xin sometimes appears at the learning meeting. The content of the Learning Association is "in view of the domestic situation, Jiang Jieshi and the Kuomintang regime have reached the precarious level, exchanging views on the situation at home and abroad and the way out for the delegation." The study will be held every two weeks or a week at Wu Wenzao's home, Qu Liang Chen's home or Xie Nan Guang's family. The learning forum is in a secret state. Xie Nan Guang has become the actual host. Each study forum will study the way of the Communist Party and the delegation, and the destination of each person.

 

In 1947, Wu Wenzao and Bing Xin posed for pictures in front of the Diplomatic Apartments in Tokyo.

In October 1, 1949, People's Republic of China was proclaimed in Beijing, and the news spread quickly to Tokyo. On the same shortwave channel, the original radio station called "Beiping radio" became the "Beijing Central People's Broadcasting Station". From the broadcast, people could hear the cheers and singing of the Tiananmen square. In the sense of historical development, the emergence of a new regime must be accompanied by its rationality and progressiveness. Otherwise, the old regime will not disappear. To continue to represent this regime or to make another choice, the problem has been unavoidable placed before Wu Wenzao and Bing Xin.

After October 1st, it was the "double ten day" of the national day of the Republic of China. The delegation held a reception as usual. The speech was delivered by Wu Wen Zai. Only a few words were received. The representatives who received the Allies did not have the enthusiasm of the past years. The representatives of some countries seemed to have some strange eyes, which made Wu Wenzao feel very uncomfortable. Since the "Potsdam Proclamation", the Republic of China has been among the great powers, and the dignity of the country and the national pride have been reflected. But in a short span of five years, the so-called great power has been swept away. At the reception, the wife of a member of the delegation quietly told foreign representatives: "this year we celebrate the second double festival last year, and celebrate October 1st next year!" this whisper was immediately amplified, and it was published in a number of newspapers in Tokyo on the last day.

The Chinese delegation to Japan at the La Villa in Yeshan Town, about 80 kilometers away from Tokyo, used as a weekend or holiday entertainment. "When the senior members of the delegation held a banquet, their children were swimming near the beach." Zhu Shiming, who returned to the delegation as head of the delegation, was elected head of the US military envoy in 1947. In April 1949, he was stationed in Japan and remained the head of the delegation to Japan. He had held a meeting with senior officials of the delegation in yezan Town, "exchanging unusual opinions with each other". After the meeting, "rumors are widely rumored that the Japanese delegation is going to learn to defy the French embassy. The advocates of the allegations are said to be Wu Wenzao, a legal adviser," said Huang Renyu, who was then Zhu Shiming's deputy and later became a famous historian.

In his late years, Bing Xin recalls this thrilling historical event with only a few lines of understatement.

At this time, we made a very good friend, comrade Xie Nanguang, deputy leader of the political group of the delegation and an underground Communists. Through him, we read a lot of Chairman Mao's works and got in touch with China. Wen has a very bad habit. Whenever he buys a new book, he will write his name and year, month and day. There were many Taiwan secret service systems in the delegation, such as juntong and Middle China, which were said to be five. They heard that the political group members worked together to study Mao Zedong's writings in the name of Wu Jia's bridge every night. Some people took advantage of Wen Shu to go to work one day, slipped to our residence and took a book on protracted war from Wen Shu's bookshelf. By the time I got out of the bedroom, he had gone far away.

We have a friend surnamed Lin, a consul of Yokohama, who was sympathetic to communism and was shot back to Taiwan. Wen Chao knew that he could not remain in the delegation. In 195, he resigned to the head of the regiment.

Through his relationship with overseas Chinese, Xie Nanguang obtained an un paid journalist in Tokyo from Malaysia's star pen daily. At that time, foreigners who could settle in Japan were reporters besides businessmen, and Wu Wenzao regained the freedom of action.

According to information, the uprising in Wu Wenzao, such as the uprising of Wu Wenzao, was sent by the people of China, who was the husband of Chen Jieru, the second wife of Chen Jieru. Lu has been engaged in the work of the Chinese Communist Party's underground party since 1926. After the liberation of Shanghai in 1949, Wu Kejian, Minister of the united front of East China Bureau, instructed Lu Ji to sneak into Hongkong from Japan to do the work of the delegation in Japan, and mobilize the high-level revolts of Zhu Shiming, Xie Nanguang, Wu Wenzao and Wu Bannong. Lu's uncle, Lu Juwu, was the director of the telecommunications office in the delegation. Through his arrangement, Lu met with Zhu Shiming, Wu Wenzao and others. This is precisely the time when the delegation plotted the uprising. Some people think that they have "repeatedly discussed the uprising, but Zhu has been unable to make up his mind. He was forced to resign soon after he returned to Tokyo, and the uprising failed."

Wu Wenzao arranged by the Japanese Communist Party to rent an empty warehouse in the outskirts of Tokyo. After renovation, it became a secluded place in Tokyo.

The reason for this is reclusion because Wu Wenzao was collecting information in Tokyo through relevant channels as a reporter. The Chevrolet trolley purchased by Wu Wenzao when he was in charge of the delegation is now in great use. The Japanese Communist Party dispatched a driver to listen to his dispatch and sent him to various places such as parties. Wu Wenzao, a sociologist, is very clear about the value of all kinds of information. He can harvest anything if he has the chance. American diplomats, delegations from various countries, media, overseas Chinese and overseas students all have acquaintances, and even from the red and green advertisements on the mailbox every day, they can also get useful information. Everything from politics, economy, military affairs to culture and education is all inclusive. At that time, the Beijing government was in a state of hostility with the Japanese government. These intelligence and information were important and valuable.

Wu Wenzao sat in his Chevrolet and did not stop for a moment. His choice of life also entered the final stage as the times changed and the world pattern changed. Some data show that while Wu Wenzao and Bing Xin were releasing balloons to Beijing, Wu Wenzao also contacted friends from the United States to explore the whereabouts after leaving Japan. Since 1949, Wu Wenzao has had a lot of correspondence with University of Chicago's anthropology professor R.Redfield, Harvard University Fei Zhengqing, Rockefeller foundation, Yale University, University of Tokyo and so on. In his letter to frank, he said, "although it is very difficult to admit the choices before us, we have many obstacles to go, but we are not too pessimistic about the future. Whether it's good or bad, as a Chinese intellectual, we have to face the new situation. "

Just as Wu Wenzao and Bing Xin made difficult choices, the Beijing government wanted them to return home, hoping that they could gather as much information as possible for new China. The friends of the American Foundation and academia were also fighting for them: "the Los Angeles foundation has invited Wu Wenzao to visit the United States, and Yale University has invited him to work in the Department of Foreign Studies and international studies, since 1951. For a period of at least one year from July 1st, the remuneration is $six thousand. The scope of his work is to study the implementation of US policy in the overseas, especially in the Far East, as well as the cultural characteristics of non Western peoples, and make a special report on his research field. Before Wu Wenzao arrived at Yale, the Los Angeles foundation provided him with a living allowance of two thousand yuan, allowing him to study the social situation in Japan in Tokyo, prepare for his work in Yale, and provide him with the tolls between Tokyo and Yale. Columbia University also expressed interest in Wu Wenzao's work. Roger Evans of Los Angeles foundation tried to find a researcher for Wu Wenzao in the Department of Sociology of University of Tokyo. Wu Wenzao is very interested in this. In his view, the Faculty of University of Tokyo is the best choice for him to be at a crossroads and face many contradictions. There is an old saying in Chinese, the main idea is that when the mind is full of contradictions, the best action is the least action. He said, "... As a scholar of social science, and firmly believe that we should maintain close ties with the west, I want to spend as much time on land as possible in Asia. I may also contribute to enriching the knowledge of society in the world. Wright is also active in the us to see if he can help Wu Wenzao. Wu Wenzao's attitude at this time is "let nature take its course".

This "let nature take its course" is that Wu Wenzao received $two thousand from the Los Angeles foundation to prepare for his research work at Yale. So they openly announced that they were going to teach in the United States. In July 15, 1951, the women's democratic news 241st released a message that "miss Xie Bingxin will go to the United States", saying that Bing Xin went to the Sacred Heart girls high school to transfer to two daughters, and transferred to the women's middle school near Yale University. "However, things changed unexpectedly. According to the communications of a number of American friends, including Fei Zhengqing, Wu Wenzao refused to apply for visas to the United States in Tokyo. This is based on a regulation of the United States government, that is, to reject those who "harm the interests of the United States" and then return to Beijing with their family members. (the above information is quoted from Yan Ming's "history of Chinese Sociology - a discipline and an era", Tsinghua University press, September 2010 First Edition).

 

1949 family photo taken on New Year's day, left: Wu Zongsheng, Wu Zongli, Bing Xin, Wu Zongyuan, Wu Wenzao

At the same time, the newly established People's Republic of China is also calling them warmly. Under the care of Premier Zhou Enlai, the relevant departments have arranged meticulously to help Wu Wen Zai Bing Xin to return home.

In August 23, 1951, Yokohama port pier, Wu Wenzao, Bing Xin and daughter Wu Zongyuan (Wu Bing), Wu Zongli (Wu Qing) a family of 4 people boarded a India ship, quietly left Japan.

Author: Wang Binggen       Editor in chief: Zhang Ge
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