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Wu Wenzao: after returning home

Release time: 2020-06-01: Source: A biographical sketch of Wu Wenzao



After Wu Wenzao and Bing Xin returned to Beijing, they lived in seclusion for a while. They learned from them and reported on the situation of Japan after the war. By the summer of 1952, Luo Qingchang, the head of the Central Military Commission's liaison and intelligence department, took a small car to the Hutong where they lived and took Wu Wenzao and Bing Xin. In the central and South Hai Xi flower hall, Premier Zhou Enlai accompanied them with Mrs. Deng Yingchao and had a cordial conversation with them. The first sentence of the premier's meeting is that you are back. The two words "come back" are really warm. As leaders of the Communist Party and the people's government, when you come back, you have no idea about them. What do you think of them as a family? Wu Wenzao sat beside Zhou Enlai for the first time, but there was no strange feeling. He talked to the premier about his own life. He said, "I was originally a teacher. I went back to Chongqing and went to Japan. I wanted to come back very soon, but I didn't expect the situation in China." The prime minister took him up and said, "it's okay. After the revolution, Mr. Wu did a lot of useful work for our party in Japan, and praised him for" contributing to the revolution ". Obviously, this is the prime minister's affirmation to them, which made Wu Wenzao very moved. He also picked the key and reported to the prime minister about the situation in Japan after the war. During the meeting, the premier also consulted their views on the work arrangement. Wu Wenzao had considered this question before returning to China. What kind of work can he do for new China?

In October 1953, Wu Wenzao accepted the new job and worked in the recently established Central National College (renamed Minzu University of China in November 1993). Although he had hoped to be sent to India as a diplomat, Wu Wenzao would be happy to accept it as a university student. However, there is a question of his recognition and acceptance. In terms of his qualifications, he should have a higher status: in 1930s, he was professor of Yanjing University and Dean of law school. Later, he was the dean of Sociology Department of Yunnan University and Dean of the school of grammar. He has collected and brought back a large amount of information and information, contributed to new China, and is continuing to collect intelligence and serve the country. But when he came to the Central People's college, the college had no reference to his qualifications and did not take into account his special contribution to new China. He just gave him an ordinary teaching position and asked him to be a professor in the research department. Until second years, his research department set up a "National situation teaching and research section" before he took over as director of the teaching and research section. At that time, his former student Fei Xiaotong and Lin Yaohua, one of the vice presidents of the civil academy and the dean of the Department, were pleased with the progress of the students, but they were somewhat disappointed. In order to avoid taking care of Wu Wenzao, the Central Nationalities Institute assigned Wu Wenzao a flat in the new peace building. Thus, the Wu Wenzao family moved out for three years and went into the Hutong quadrangle, and moved into the 208 room of the east campus dormitory. But there is no bathroom and no hot water pipes. For this reason, in his diary, Wu Wenzao had a "bath to Xiao Tong family".

During this period, Wu Wenzao's work was to organize the teaching of ethnic issues and ethnology. As director of teaching and research section, communicate and finalize with teachers, leaders and school leaders in curriculum setting and arrangement, including receiving foreign students. Thus, Zhao Yaohua talked and talked with the teachers of the teaching and research section. In his diary, there were "gold visiting" and "Yang Jiaju coming" from time to time. "I heard and talked with you, met Lin Huixiang, Cen Jiawu, Feng Han Ji, Liang Zhaotao," and so on. The affairs of the teaching and research section. These trivial affairs do not bother Wu Wenzao's "nerd" character. He even enjoys it. He not only receives visits from other people, but also often goes to them to talk about them.

The two is to help young teachers to revise their speeches and put forward constructive suggestions for enriching the content of ethnography. Young teachers are the main body of teaching, whether they are ethnic minority teaching and research section or ethnology department. They have accumulated a lot of professional knowledge for a certain ethnic group they study, but some of them may be deficient in comprehensive ability and vision. Wu Wenzao must stand at the theoretical height and academic perspective, and guide young teachers in the integration and use of information. Shi Lianlin's Dai speech, Zhu Ning's Yi People's lecture notes, Wang Mingyu's Taiwan Gao Shan lecture notes, Zhu Xuan's Yao nationality introduction, Hu Xianjin's Inner Mongolia pastoral area production and living situation lecture notes, Hui, Manchu, Li nationality, Wa nationality, Qiang nationality and southern nationalities' speeches, Wu Wenzao all worked hand in hand, put forward specific opinions and suggestions. In particular, the Kazakh lecture notes of Jin Ye have undergone numerous reiteration, which lasted for more than a year. This may be related to Wu's understanding of Xinjiang's situation. In 1940s, he conducted a survey in Xinjiang as a member of the delegation. However, he did not provide investigation results because of his inconsistent views with the Kuomintang's national views. In the speech of the Kazakh, he can provide both information and theoretical explanation, but Kim does not necessarily understand and accept it. Therefore, this lecture is repeated most frequently.

Wu Wenzao's own Tibetan related content is divided into mountain areas, dam areas, reviews, transportation and so on, and even the change of economic outlook after liberation. He has not been to Tibet, but in Chongqing she introduced Li Youyi and so on to Tibet. Now Li Youyi has become his assistant. The information provided has become the first draft of the speech. On this basis, Wu Wenzao revised and improved teaching for undergraduates. Obviously, the old professor is different from the young teacher. His speech is slow, and his data are few and analyzed. He seldom uses personalized language. Therefore, the students are not satisfied and send representatives to his home to reflect the situation.

For the courses he gave, Wu Wenzao's idea was to concentrate on publishing a book, which embodies the achievements of teaching and research, entitled "Chinese ethnography". This is one of his small goals, and he has talked with some experts. At the same time, the "Chinese minorities" (English manuscript), which is synopsis, has been completed. A list of ethnic minorities is attached, with the names of 52 to 53 nationalities up to now.

For the establishment of Chinese ethnology, Wu Wenzao still worked actively in the absence of the "Declaration of discipline" qualification. Ethnography teaching and research is only the most basic one. He considers more theoretical confirmation. In view of the fact that Fei Xiaotong and Lin Yaohua are more practical and less theoretical, his theoretical thinking and search can not be as big as the creation of the Yanjing school in Yanjing University. But his distress followed: no new published theoretical works. After the Second World War, the study of sociology, ethnology and anthropology has made new achievements, and has promoted the theoretical achievements. However, the latest achievements in related studies, except for chrysanthemum and knife brought back from Japan, are almost unknown. The book purchased by American students is a channel, but the gap between China and the United States has become a gap. Fei Xiaotong's translator did not even get a notice or a sample book after translating his book. Professor Wu Wenzao, director of the teaching and research section in the course of discipline construction, "feels deeply isolated and lacks the horrible business opportunity to learn."

In order to capture the information about ethnology, Wu Wenzao subscribed to a large number of newspapers and magazines, including "new era", "world knowledge", "international life", "philosophical research", "Xinhua semi monthly", "learning", "Reference News", "historical research", "Oriental world", "ethnics translation" and so on. He looked for valuable things like sand and gold. Once discovered, he was cut off and put to pieces. He did not hesitate to categorize and archive them at any time, so that he could find them at any time.

At this time, Wu Wenzao conducted an important reading and research, that is, to return to Ma Lingni. But this is not the same as before. He is not sure what to look for, whether it is the support of theory or the object of criticism. Is it a fragrant flower or a poisonous weeds? Is it an idea that can serve the proletariat or a bourgeois reactionary tool? Wu Wenzao kept wavering between the two when he got back to Ma lingonsky, but he did not give up or gave up. Where else could he find it? During this period, he repeated the following words in his diary: re reading the papers on horse culture, reexamining the new papers of Mahalanobis culture, and finding out some articles of Marx; began to extract the Mahalanobis reactionary words and the theory of Marx war; read the chapters of Mahalanobis theory, and bring back the translation (functional schools); read the notes on Mahalanobis and supplement them; retranslate Marx's articles and read horses. "Ma" is a new interpretation of Ma Tu's nationalism Festival. He read about the Pan African cultural contact issue, discussed the functional School criticism, interpreted two sections of the horse's work, clarified the "rights of birth, citizenship charter" in the horse's work, continued to read the functional essay section, reviewed several sections of the Marxist culture theory, and continued to read the chapter of Marx witchcraft religion. In terms of the material of the functionalist school, the relationship between the two people who want to write Boas and Ma lingsky, and his views on the role of linguistics in ethnological tools, reading Xiao Tong's functional culture, book reviews and so on. This is almost the same order that Wu Wen Chao picked up the order of his works. He could see his confusion in his mind, for a moment, to criticize, for a while to learn, to find out reactionary remarks from time to time, and to relearn business in a short while.

Wu Wenzao also carried out other aspects of reading, or as long as he could find books related to sociology, ethnology and philosophy. There were Nasser's revolutionary philosophy, power theory, Bernard's "science and society", "freedom and civilization", bath's "American bourgeois sociology of service for expansionism", Nehru's "India". Discovery, Tang Yinpei's "civilization in refining", "Africa", "African race" and so on. Wu Wenzao had more contacts with the Soviet Union in the Soviet Union in 1930s. The policies adopted by new China to the Soviet Union kept him vigilant about the relevant ethnology and works of the Soviet Union, such as information on the ethnological mission of the Soviet Union, the issues of ethnic history in Soviet Union, and the translation of Soviet ethnology. The integration of ethnic and political consciousness. It can be seen that Wu Wenzao still wants to maintain his academic character and bottom line in ethnology. Therefore, it is interesting to look back at Zhang Binglin's national thoughts and Cai Yuanpei's ethnological articles.

During this period, Wu Wenzao attended two lectures at the same time. One is Marxism Leninism lectures, the other is collective listening and recording. Perhaps it is not accustomed to listening to the recording. Maybe because of bad health, Wu Wenzao often absences from classes. There is such a record: "I haven't listened to the recording yet, ask for leave" once again, "I'm absent from class once again," and "late for the recording of marrows, for leave, tired," and "not listening to the recording of Marxism Leninism". And after more than ten talks about the Soviet Patriotic War, the international environment during the postwar era, Khrushchev's secret report is interested. It is evident that he has his own selectivity for the "Marxism Leninism lecture".

Another lecture is "the foundation of Ethnology", which covers from America to Africa, from ethnology to history and linguistics to ancient Egyptian culture. It is an expert lecture. Wu Wenzao talks about this lecture and talks with experts.

In July 1956, Wu Wenzao was introduced by Yan Jingyao and Lei Jieqiong. Bing Xin was introduced by Lei Jieqiong and Chen Hui and joined the China Association for democracy promotion. After returning home, Wu Wenzao once thought negative and was ill. His spiritual turning point appeared in February 1957. In the early spring season, Beijing was still cold, but Wu Wenzao's mood seemed to have spring. He returned to school after a meeting with experts and received a formal notice. He was recommended by the Democratic Progressive Party and passed as a member of the National Committee of the Chinese people's Political Consultative Conference. This notice is very important to Wu Wenzao. When he was a member of the CPPCC Committee, he showed that the Communist Party and the people's government had the same trust and respect for him in politics and Bing Xin's National People's Congress. He gained confidence in his family, in school and in the society. This notice is more effective than any cure. Wu Wenzao walks home, goes upstairs, walks lightly and young, so that Bing Xin thinks that time has gone back to the "Yanyuan era".


In the early spring of 1957, Wu Wenzao attended the Supreme State Conference and heard Mao Zedong's speech on how to deal with contradictions among the people. He was "very excited" and returned home in good mood and recorded in his diary.

Later, Wu Wenzao took over the post of curator of the library of the Central Nationalities Institute, which is also very suitable for him. The director of library is not in hot seat. When he wants to do a good job, the vigorous anti rightist campaign begins. Wu Wenzao began to be very cautious and did not speak. However, he could not afford to mobilize one or three more, but he made some remarks at the meeting, which soon became his reactionary speech attacking the party. At the end of 1957, Wu Wenzao was called a rightist, and he was charged with three accusations: "admiring Chu Anping's" fallacy of the party world "; advocating" the contradiction between power and imbalance in the government, the power and the ability to do so are all ancient, and the people's Congress is incompetent and has no legal system ". It is considered that" Stalin is a dictator. " Finally, we will deal with it: "revoke the director of the library of the Central Nationalities College and the director of the Department of ethnography of the Department of history. Retain the CPPCC National Committee members and professors, from two to three. (Wu Wenzao files)

For a while, Wu Wenzao's mood could be said to be very bad. If he could not write the book, he could not read it. He could not read it. He kept talking about it. I really had no opposition to the party and socialism. Bing Xin in his later years recalled this:

Wen Chao was delimited to the right. This unexpected calamity was a bolt from the blue for him and me. Because in his accusation, there is a "anti party and anti socialist" one. When he was asked to write examination materials, he painstakingly painstakingly excavated his thoughts and wrote many sheets of paper. He painfully dug and looked at me with puzzled and puzzled eyes. He said, "if I oppose the party and oppose socialism, I will go abroad to counter it. Why should I go back to the motherland in the name of the United States after all the hardships?" At that time, I felt "grieved and dreary" just like him, but I didn't say what I thought. I only encouraged him to "dig" well, because he was a serious person, and if you had doubts in his mind, he would be even more confused.

Just then, Premier Zhou sent a car and called me to the simple house in Central South Hai Xi flower hall. Of course, they could not say anything, and only let me help him to make a good transformation, saying that "the most helpful person at this time can only be his closest person......" When I saw Deng's elder sister like seeing her family members, my anger was poured out. I said, "if he is a rightist, I am also a rightist, but we have no idea of" opposing the party and opposing socialism ". When I came back, I said to Wen Shu that the prime minister and his wife were very gentle in their efforts to transform him. In his autobiography, he said, "at that time, I felt still aggrieved and dreary, but I firmly believe that things will clear up one day." (my wife, Wu Wenzao)

In October 1, 1959, it was 10th anniversary in People's Republic of China. In the ten year of Daqing, although the central government did not amnesty the world, there would be amnesty for prisoners' political prisoners. At the same time, we must pick up the hat for the rightist. In September 16th, the decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council on the handling of rightist rightists has announced: "when celebrating the founding of the great People's Republic of China, 10th anniversary, in order to better transform the rightist and other Rightists, it is more conducive to turning negative factors into positive ones. Evil is good, and the Rightists who are indeed reformed in speech and action are no longer regarded as bourgeois Rightists in the future, that is to remove their right-wing hats. On the second day, Wu Wenzao learned the news. Yang Dongchun, vice chairman of the Central Committee of the Democratic Progressive Party, talked about the issue of picking up the hat for the Rightists when he studied the communiques of the Communist Party of China in the eighth Plenary Session of the 8th CPC Central Committee. Wu Wenzao was in a state of apprehension at that time. He felt that the two words of "taking off the hat" were the same as the two words of "wearing a hat".

On the second day of this comment, Li Weihan, Minister of the United Front Work of the CPC Central Committee, interviewed Wu Wenzao. In the face of the old revolution, which was seen by the Democrats as the embodiment of the Communist Party, Wu Wenzao appeared a little nervous and wrote the outline in advance in his notebook. Li Weihan spoke strategically in four aspects: "thought and position", "service and transformation", "visiting and visiting (contacting new things) and transforming ideas", "ideological transformation and emotional transformation". Finally, it emphasizes: "the consistency of transformation of position, transformation of world outlook and service for socialism. Through learning, it is clear that to serve socialism, we must first transform our stand and transform the world outlook. For the Rightists, first of all, we should transform our position and transform the world outlook at the same time. We must transform the world outlook, because position and world outlook are two aspects of mutual influence. Only by gradually establishing the proletarian world outlook can we ensure the smooth transformation of the position. This conversation has some philosophical implications, but it has a specific guiding significance for Wu Wenzao.

In November 15th, the news of Wu Wenzao's hat lifting was announced. The next day, the Central College of nationalities organized learning and discussion for Wu Wenzao, Fei Xiaotong and Pan Guangdan who took the hat off the three. Wu Wenzao and other three people took off the hat of the Rightists. It was supposed to be a good thing and should be congratulated. But at the seminar, no one congratulated them on picking up the hat of the right wing, and even did not have a good word. Wu Wenzao first made a speech at the meeting, talking about his own surprise and feeling in the library square hearing the news of the Rightists' hat picking, indicating that they should continue to intensify their efforts to transform them in the future, so as to "listen to the party's words and report frequently to the heart".

After Wu Wenzao's "right-wing pick up", the people's Democratic Progressive Party and CPPCC Committee organized him to go out to investigate and carry out investigation and study in order to broaden his horizons, strengthen learning and accept transformation. Among them, in from August 1 to 21, 1961, the whole family went to Dalian for vacation. In from August 6 to 11, 1962, the family went to the Fragrant Hills for a summer vacation. They stayed at the Fragrant Hills Hotel. The two daughters lived in another room. Their neighbors were Zhao Puchu and Xu Boxin. The restaurant has meals three meals a day, practicing Qigong in the quiet groves, visiting mountains, playing bridge, and walking to the double clear villa after dinner. More time is spent on learning and lectures. In August 6, 1963, Wu Bing held a wedding with diplomat Li Zhichang. After dinner on the first day, Wu Wenzao and Lei Jieqiong and Yan Jingyao took the night train to Chengde for a holiday and stayed at the Yanyu building guest house. In from August 2 to 27, 1964, Wu Wenzao studied and stayed in Dalian for 25 days as a member of the CPPCC National Committee. These holidays, especially the holiday of family members, are rare. Especially during the three years of hard times, it is not easy to enjoy this kind of treatment.

In from December 14 to 22, 1959, Bing Xin, Wu Wenzao, Gu Jiegang, Zhang Jiyuan and Xu Chubo went to Anyang for inspection. They lived in Anyang guest house 8 days before and after, and Wu Wenzao lived in room 5, Bing Xin and Zhang man Su house. In those days, couples did not go out at the same time. Accommodation was generally distributed by sex. Another time was from May 21, 1964 to June 7th. The pro democracy and CPPCC organizations went to study in Tai'an, Shandong. Bing Xin, Wu Wen Chao, Pan Guangdan, Wang Yunsheng, Liang Chunfu, Wei Jiangong and Chen Linrui participated in the socialist education movement. Still living by sex, Bing went to the agricultural technical school, "9:40 goes to bed, the moon is very good." Wu Wenzao, a member of the CPPCC Committee, visited Taishan, a guest house on the mountain, watching the sunrise at the Jade Emperor's peak and walking down the mountain. In his diary, he wrote, "I am a test for 63 years old, and I believe I can do something for the people." Wu Wenzao has participated in the inspection for two times as a member of the CPPCC Committee. The time is very long. Once he arrived in Fujian, the hometown of Bing Xin, and once returned to his hometown Jiangsu.

After being beaten to the right, Wu Wenzao was still a three grade Professor, although the three grade professor was not qualified to go to the podium. What does a rightist or a hat picking right-wing class teach? Do you listen to the students? So Wu Wenzao was temporarily put to the National Institute, the institution that he just came to the civil court. The task was to examine and comment on the three series of books (history of Chinese minorities), "concise history of Chinese minority languages" and "general situation of autonomous areas of ethnic minorities in China". This is the expedient measure of the Party committee of the people's college. When Wu Wenzao listens, he is filled with joy. Although he can't attend class, though he can't manage the library anymore, he has made an ideal of his right ethnography before he righting the right. After a lapse of three years, I returned to this familiar world and produced a sense of business.

"The three collection of books" is an encyclopedia of Ethnology and ethnic management. Wu Wenzao is immersed in the vast ocean of Ethnology and ethnography all day long. Leaders come and go from time to time, without criticism or even with praise and encouragement. Wu Wenzao's investment really made a success. By the early summer of 1961, the examination work was basically over. Liu Chun, Secretary of the Party committee of the people's Congress, made a report at the Tibet office, focusing on the work and achievements of the three series of books. It was not until then that Wu Wenzao realized that "the three collection of books" is a major scientific research project handed over by the National People's Congress to the people's court. Its completion reflects the attention and organization of the Party committee of the civil society and has been commended by the National People's Congress. Wu Wenzao, who listens to the report here, is also as happy as Liu Chun, and is glad to be able to participate in such a major scientific research project of a country. When the examination of the three series of books is still in progress, Wu Wenzao has successively accepted two tasks, one is the entry of the Ci Hai, one is collecting data and translation for the Sino Indian border issue, and continues to the information and translation of the Sino Pakistani and Sino Arab border issues.

In 1965, Wu Wenzao took part in the socialist education movement in rural areas. In August 15th, arrived in Liuzhou, Guangxi, second days, 104 kilometers of mountain road, arrived in Longsheng County midday, and then arrived at Wu Wenzao's social education area - Dou Jiang District. What interests Wu Wenzao is that the Dou Jiang District belongs to the minority nationality area. It never occurred to him that the social education allowed him to walk into the national community, and it could carry out very specific "field work". However, when the idea came out, it was put down as a private word. But the national situation introduced by Deputy Minister of the united front of the county is quite attractive to him. Deputy Minister Mao said that, because of the fact that the ethnic minority areas are carrying out peaceful land reform, there is no struggle, the masses are not very conscious, the landlords are good people, and the landlords are not defeated and dignified. The ethnic clans conceals the essence of class struggle. At the same time, "production technology is relatively backward, production is not high, especially hampers production, and old customs have not been reformed." Some people think that "now the landlords have no land, the rich peasants are not rich, and everyone eats by labor". In fact, the rich have not been knocked down. They are not willing to fail. In the case of children's education and family genealogy, all the fertilizers are left to make their own homes, which is the way of life for the rich. It has a dominant position in culture and an advantage in economy. Landlords have gold and silver, are well dressed, and live in good houses. They not only have private plots, but also engage in light industry, as well as forestry, animal husbandry, fishing and hunting. Deputy Minister Mao pointed out the grim situation of class struggle with concrete facts. This is what Wu Wenzao has heard and heard before, which has greatly educated him.

Wu Wenzao did something behind the Qing Dynasty task force, namely "field work" for the minority nationalities in Dou Jiang District. When he left Yunnan in 1940, he regretted that he failed to investigate ethnic minorities in ethnic minority areas, and this time he decided not to give up this opportunity. Yao ethnic group in Guangxi was the first ethnic group visited by Fei Xiaotong. His wife, Wang Tonghui, was sacrificed in Yao mountain. Whenever confronted with the mountains in front of us, the image of a young couple will emerge. Wu Wenzao dare not continue to think about it. The yearning for old life is also a retrogression, which will play a corrosive role in revolutionary morale. However, being in a minority area and ignoring it is another obstacle he can hardly get across. It is impossible for Wu Wenzao to do field work if he carries out the flag. Then he changes his way. When he investigates class struggle, he quietly inserts the content he wants to investigate, and neither the other nor the fellow traveller knows. In this way, Wu Wenzao made a comprehensive understanding of the Dong nationality, inspected other ethnic minorities such as the Zhuang nationality, and recorded the understanding and investigation. According to academic norms, the report of fieldwork and so on was quietly sent back to Beijing in the form of registered letters.

In January 10, 1966, Wu Wenzao completed his self appraisal and returned to Liuzhou. The prefectural committee held a reception Symposium and screened the color film Dongfang Hong. In the early morning of January 14th, I returned to Beijing. The leaders of the civil service met at the Beijing station.

Author: Wang Binggen       Editor in chief: Zhang Ge
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