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Zheng Zhenduo and modern Chinese children's Literature

Release time: 2020-06-01: Source: Excerpts from literature and art daily

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In the history of modern Chinese literature, Zheng Zhenduo is a rare "versatile" character. Guo Moruo and other scholars call him "a generation of talent that can not be redeemed." Hu Yuzhi said, "he is a versatile person, no matter in poetry, drama, prose, art, archaeology, history, no matter in creation and translation, whether it is to introduce famous works in the world or to sort out national essays. He has made so much contribution to his legacy that he seldom can do so. Duan Mu Hong Liang said: "if China has the so-called" Encyclopedia "pie, then Mr. Xi Di is the most outstanding one. In his many achievements, I think the most important thing is his pioneering contribution to modern Chinese children's literature.

In his 40 years of literary career, his children's literary theory can be said to be the essence of his literary creation. His children's literature theory advocates the expression of "responsibility for life" and responsibility for the growth of children. Through literature, children can see the world with their eyes wide open and understand the world. Generally speaking, his children's literature theory has two theoretical crystallization and two functions.

His first theoretical view is the Enlightenment of children's interest and the importance of literary standard. This view is embodied in the dual standard thinking of "child orientation theory" and "literary departmentalism". Children's departmentalism is the guiding ideology of literary creation. The view of children's departmentalism is that the content of children's literature should be centered on children's psychological and interest points, not only taking into account the characteristics of children of different ages, but also considering the health of children's body and mind. The works created must be healthy, easy to understand, and easy to recite, so as to reach the same level as Bai Juyi's poetry, and put the spiritual food of children in the same important position as giving children material food. "Literary departmentalism" is the form and means of the specific practice of literary creation. It emphasizes the simplicity and fluency of works and the beauty of simplicity. Children's literature should be based on mythology, legends, fairy tales, novels, ballads and so on. He especially admired Andersen's children and Aesop's fables, and created new Chinese fairy tales by imitation, adaptation and other literary means.

His second theory of children's literature is that children's literature is borderless. Zheng Zhenduo's literary focus is always standing on the overall situation of human civilization and carrying out comparative study. It has a way of dialogue with different cultures in the world. Through studying and comparing the traditional folk stories of different countries, Zheng Zhenduo drew a rule that many children's books had no national boundaries. He advocates that when we adopt the pure local Chinese story, we should try our best to use the materials of children's literature in all countries in the world if they are suitable for Chinese children. But he also pointed out in particular: "we must strongly reject the habit of developing children's bad habits and bad temperaments." This is the essence of Zheng Zhenduo's children's literature theory of "no borders". This view has a positive practical significance for the overall development, evolution and progress of the world's children's literature. At the same time, it also promotes the better integration of Chinese children's literature with the world and stands in the forest of world culture. This is another great wisdom of Zheng Zhenduo's theory of children's literature.

The specific literary functions of Zheng Zhenduo's theory of children's literature should be considered from two aspects. The first direction is the development of children's interests, the contribution of children's literature from scratch, from rigidity to liveliness, and the other direction is a reverse thinking, which proves his view of children through comparative methods. His view of children is incompatible with the concept of children under feudal monopoly. Zheng Zhenduo is grieved by the widespread phenomenon of the suppression of the nature of children under feudal darkness, and is eager to break this fence. The law of historical development tells us that there must be a kind of light that will drive out darkness. Obviously, the view of Zheng Zhenduo's children's literature is such a long sword of light, which has broken away the wrong concept of children's view of the feudal children as a fool's obedience for thousands of years. In the traditional concept of feudal children, "son" concept of children, father as son, "father let son die son has to die" is regarded as a fixed belief. This view of children is a pure instrumentalism. It is mechanical. The physiological and social attributes of children are in a weakening state. Zheng Zhenduo's theory of children's literature is an independent personality. Children are different from adults. Their interest points are completely different from those of adults. They benefit from receiving children's literature. The interest of your body builds your spiritual world.

Zheng Zhenduo not only attaches importance to the construction of the theory of children's literature, but also practices it in his own creative practice. His literary practice always adheres to the concept of children's literature based on children and literature. Zheng Zhenduo's outstanding contributions to modern children's literature are embodied in translation, adaptation and creation.

Our country has always lacked the true meaning of children's literature. Until the new culture movement, the dual variation of enlightenment and the salvation of emancipation, many foreign outstanding children's literature came to China, which made people gradually realize that the main body of children's literature is children. Zheng Zhenduo believed that translation had the function of changing the Chinese cultural tradition, that is, in his view of "no borders" in his children's literature, so he began to write his children's literature from the translation of foreign children's literature. Different from the skepticism held by many people, whether Western works can accurately convey the ideas and styles contained in the original works can be translatable. Zheng Zhenduo put forward a sharp saying that "literary books are absolutely translatable" and that their thoughts can be completely transferred from the original to the translated text, that is, the artistic beauty of the original text can also be fully transplanted into the translation. " In the translation of children's literature, he has his own translation criteria: sentences should be simple and fluent, words should be vivid, and the translated version should be as oral as possible and faithful to the original text.

On this basis, Zheng Zhenduo translated Tagore's works such as "flying bird collection", "crescent collection" and "Tagore poem". He chose vernacular as the language of translation, not only a positive promotion of vernacular, but also the expression of emotion in his works, which is not restricted by language. He absorbs the characteristics of western language and applies it boldly in translation, that is, Europeanization of language and enriching the way of expression of vernacular. In the process of translation, the combination of literal translation and free translation can make the translation closer to the original intention of the original text without affecting readers' understanding of the whole literary works. In 1925, Zheng Zhenduo published the book "India fable", which included 55 translations of India's fable which is very suitable for children's reading. In the 1958 mourning for Zheng Zhenyi, India scholar Hayman song bisgas said: "he may be the first to introduce India classical literature and modern literature to Chinese readers. He is also a pioneer in the current cultural exchange between China and India."

Not only is Zheng Zhenduo confined to translation, but also in order to make foreign works more suitable for China's national conditions and children's characteristics, he often rewrites and translations foreign children's literature works. For example, the fairy tale "Bamboo Princess" is translated from Zheng Zhenduo's classic fairy tale, "bamboo collection". He also translated the famous French animal fable poem "the story of narahu", and rewrote a long narrative poem which satirize the struggle of class contradictions in Medieval France to become a children's fable with Chinese characteristics and philosophy, which made the work with profound influence in Europe spread in China.

In addition to translating foreign children's literature, Zheng Zhenduo has been exploring the mode of children's literature belonging to China and actively creating it. In children's literature, fairy tales can reflect life, convey philosophies, and are deeply loved by children. In the world of fairy tales, Zheng Zhenduo portrays a series of bright, positive and good hero images. By describing their confrontation with the dark and evil forces, and finally achieving victory, it highlights the positive guiding role of children's literature works for children. In addition, Zheng Zhenduo also created some rhyme and catchy nursery rhymes, such as the seaside, the kitten, and so on, which was published in the children's world by music composing Xu Dishan's music. It can sing and read aloud, which is very much in line with children's interest and aesthetics.

Zheng Zhenduo's highly respected children's literature theory and the translation, translation and creation of children's literature play a very important role in the history of modern children's literature. But his greatest contribution to Chinese children's literature is the creation of the first modern Chinese children's literature magazine, "children's world".

The publication of children's world is inextricably linked to the times background. The "54" New Culture Movement promoted the great emancipation of mind, and people began to find and attach importance to the status of "women" and even "children". The development of the vernacular movement and the reform of the educational system have promoted the emergence and development of children's literature. Under such a social background, some writers have gradually begun to pay attention to the group of children, and have put forward some theories of children's literature relying on magazines and newspapers, and have created some children's literature works, but there has not yet been a relatively fixed group of children's literary creation. The publication of children's world is mainly due to the help of the literary research society. As the core member of the literature research society, Zhou Zuoren, Mao Dun, Ye Shengtao and other writers have appealed and practiced for children's literary creation.

Zheng Zhenduo spent a lot of time in editing the children's world, which was not enough for the purpose of publishing the first publication, then to the manuscripts of literary works and the collection of children's own works, and to set up columns to display various themes. In 1922 L, the children's world was officially launched, and its founding word "children's world" Manifesto has been published in the newspapers and periodicals such as the "news of the new era, learning lantern", "morning newspaper supplement" in December 30th, "women's magazine" in January 1, 1922, volume eighth, l and so on in December 28, 1921. Zheng Zhenduo thinks that "children's world" is for children, but books that children like to read depend on the recommendation and purchase of parents and teachers. First, let them know the children's world to reach the children's hands. Therefore, the declaration of children's world is published in adult newspapers, which first attracts public attention and enables elders to understand the purpose and content of publications. Affect children. The children's world soon became popular throughout the country. Children's world is the forefront of children's literature in the literary research society, but the main contributors include primary and secondary school teachers and children themselves, besides the main members of the literature research society. Focusing on collecting children's own literary works, we can see Zheng Zhenduo's respect for children, his yearning for children's self expression, and their expectation for children's creation.

Children's world pays attention to imparting knowledge and moral to children. Magazines publish many scientific essays, using simple and vivid words to popularize natural science knowledge in a simple way, so that children can both read and read knowledge. Zheng Zhenduo often chooses exotic animals from all over the world as the bottom cover illustrations, thereby widening the horizons of children. Children's world publicizes new morality and criticizes the old morality of hypocrisy and ugly. But this idea is not filled with the full of admonishing tone in the work, but through the fairy tales and fables, imperceptibly affecting the children, so as to edify the children.

"Children's world" focuses on a kind of literary style development in practice, which is obviously different from many children's magazine publications of the same age. For example, the Chinese children's circle, which is published by Zhonghua Book Company, is an article between semi classical and semi vernacular. It focuses on a stylistic pattern of Chinese traditional fairy tales, which is replaced by adult's tone, interest and stylistic tendencies. The student magazine, which is sponsored by the business printing house, is mainly based on expository writings, focusing on the publication of various knowledge for children. It is commendable that since the founding of the children's world, Zheng Zhenduo has painstakingly set up nearly 10 main styles for them: six categories of "children's rhymes", "stories", "fairy tales", "dramas", "fables" and "novels" almost include the main genre of children's Literature. While doing a large number of these literary works, Zheng Zhenduo also pays attention to children's literature. Interesting style development, he drew inspiration from traditional Chinese art, and introduced illustrations as an auxiliary style to the children's world. While integrating with western literature, he added creatively the auxiliary style of "music," "adage" and "comic painting" into the stylistic layout of children's world. "Children's world" is a great book worthy of a great deal of contribution to the creation and perfection of all kinds of styles of children's literature. It deserves to be added to the history of modern Chinese literature.

In addition to literature, children's world also attaches great importance to the attraction of magazines to children in other aspects. For example, Zheng Zhenduo attaches great importance to attracting children's attention to magazines with beautiful cover pictures and patterns. The cover is made of color pictures printed on offset paper, and the four words of children's world are also full of changes, making the magazine colorful and lively, so that readers can have strong interest in reading.

Zheng Zhenduo plays an irreplaceable role in the creation and development of modern children's literature. He not only focused on the establishment of the theoretical system of children's literature, but also devoted himself to the creation of children's literature. He founded the first children's literature magazine "children's world" with the power of his life, and appealed to other excellent writers in the same period to devote himself to the concern and creation of children's literature. With his good artistic accomplishment and loving brushwork, Zheng Zhenduo set up a literary age for his children.

Author: Pan Ying       Editor in chief: Zhang Ge
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