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Lively practice of deliberative democracy with Chinese characteristics

Release time: 2020-05-25: Source: Red flag manuscript 2020/10

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The nineteen major reports of the party stressed that when people discuss things well, it is the essence of people's democracy that people discuss everything. Deliberative democracy is an important way to realize the leadership of the party. It is a unique form and unique advantage of China's socialist democratic politics. In the fourth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee, the party further pointed out that we should adhere to the unique advantages of socialist consultative democracy, improve the implementation mechanism before consultation and decision making, and enrich the institutionalized practice of deliberate and deliberate matters. Tracing back to the system of multi-party cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, since the CPC Central Committee issued the slogan of "May 1" and the preparatory new policy in 1948, it has laid the foundation for building a new type of political party relations in China. The consultative system of the CPPCC and the new political party system have opened up a lively practice of deliberative democracy with Chinese characteristics.

One

In April 1948, Mao Zedong took part in the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and came to the city south village of Fuping County, Hebei province. In the face of the domestic political situation at that time, Mao Zedong personally drafted the "May 1" Labor Day Slogan in late April, calling on all democratic parties, people's organizations and social leaders to convene a New Political Consultative Conference quickly, to discuss and implement the convening of the people's Congress and to form a democratic coalition government. (twenty-fifth copies of the important literature selection (1921 - 1949) since the founding of the CPC, twenty-fifth edition of the Central Literature Press 2011, 283rd - 284. In May 1st, the "May Day Slogan" was published in the front page of the Jin Cha Ji daily. After the publication of the May 1 slogan, the democratic parties, mass organizations, overseas Chinese and non party democratic personages were immediately responded to.

The 23 full text of the May Day Slogan embodies the political agenda of the Communist Party of China, which fully reflects the political demands of all sectors of the country and the political aspirations of the democratic parties. The democratic parties issued a statement and Manifesto responding to the "May 1 slogan" of the Communist Party of China and the democratic parties, people's organizations and compatriots. Overseas Chinese patriotic overseas Chinese were also encouraged to learn about the May 1 slogan. At the same time, various democratic parties held seminars, symposiums, wrote articles, contributed opinions and research methods, and offered suggestions for the convening of the new CPPCC, thus forming a broad and deep new climax of the CPPCC campaign. As Mao Zedong pointed out, the slogan of convening the Political Consultative Conference unites all democratic parties, mass organizations and personages without party affiliation in the Kuomintang area. The democratic parties and Democrats actively responded to the May 1 slogan, accepted the CPC's new democratic revolution program in fact, recognized the leadership of the Communist Party of China, and opened a prelude to the establishment of the multi-party cooperation and political consultation system under the leadership of the Communist Party of China.

Patriotism and democracy are the common political and ideological bases of all democratic parties and have made great efforts over a long period of time. In response to Mao Zedong's invitation to represent the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, since the autumn of 1948, patriotic and democratic personages have gone from all over the country and abroad to Jiefang District, Northeast China and North China, to discuss with the Communist Party of China the strategy of founding a nation. Leaders of democratic parties, non party democratic personages, representatives of overseas Chinese, representatives of ethnic minorities and religious circles arrived in Jiefang District from all over the country and abroad. They were warmly welcomed and warmly received by the leaders of the Central Committee of the CPC and the people of Jiefang District. They also fully demonstrated the great universality and representativeness of the people's democratic united front. The preparations for the new CPPCC mark a new realm of consultation and cooperation between the CPC and the political parties of the democratic parties.

Since then, with the convening of the preparatory meeting of the new CPPCC, the drafting and formulation of the "common programme", and the successful convening of the first plenary session of the CPPCC, the birth of People's Republic of China marked the beginning of the multi-party cooperation system led by the CPC. The participation of democratic parties in the establishment and management of the new regime clearly shows that the democratic parties are neither opposition parties nor opposition parties, but participating parties. The characteristics of the multi-party cooperation system under the leadership of the Communist Party of China show that on the basis of the unity and cooperation between the Chinese Communist Party and the democratic parties, the connotation of political leadership and acceptance of leadership is increased, and the new system of political party relations is embodied in the form of consultative democracy. The path of political development, as pointed out in the nineteen major reports of the Communist Party of China, "is the inevitable result of the long struggle of historical logic, theoretical logic and practical logic of the Chinese people since modern times".

Two

Marked by the successful convening of the first plenary session of the Chinese people's Political Consultative Conference, the implementation of the multi-party cooperation and political consultation system under the leadership of the CPC has laid a solid foundation for the effective operation of consultative democracy.

The earliest interpretation of the theory of deliberative democracy started before and after the founding of the People's Republic of China. In September 1949, during the first plenary session of the Chinese people's Political Consultative Conference, Zhou Enlai pointed out in a brilliant way: "the spirit of new democracy is not the final vote, mainly in advance consultations and repeated discussions." (Zhou Enlai's united front selections, people's Publishing House 1984 edition, 134th pages) after the establishment of the National People's Congress system, whether or not we should continue to play the role of the CPPCC, Mao Zedong explicitly pointed out in December 1954 that "the people's Congress is the organ of power, which does not prevent us from establishing a Political Consultative Conference of the CPPCC. It is very important for leaders of all parties, nationalities and organizations to consult on New China's major events. " (Biography of Mao Zedong (1949 - 1976), 2003 edition of the Central Literature Publishing House, 315th pages. It can be seen that deliberative democracy started from the birth of People's Republic of China, which is an important product of exploring and developing people's democracy. In the new period of reform and opening up and socialist modernization, the CPC has placed the people's democracy as the essential attribute of socialism with Chinese characteristics in the process of exploring and building socialism with Chinese characteristics. In November 2007, the white paper on China's party system first used the concept of "deliberative democracy", emphasizing that the combination of electoral democracy and deliberative democracy is a major feature of China's socialist democracy.

The eighteen Party of the party expounded the deliberative democracy from the system level, and put forward "perfecting socialist consultative democracy", "socialist consultative democracy" is an important form of our people's democracy. We should improve the consultative democracy system and work mechanism, and promote the extensive, multi-layered and institutionalized development of deliberative democracy. On September 2014, general secretary Xi Jinping delivered an important speech on celebrating the 65th anniversary session of the Chinese people's Political Consultative Conference, and made a comprehensive and systematic exposition of the building of socialist consultative democracy. General secretary Xi Jinping profoundly analyzed the relationship between the two forms of democracy in China, namely, electoral democracy and deliberative democracy, and emphasized that the two are not mutually exclusive and mutually negative relations, but complementary and complementary. They constitute the institutional characteristics and advantages of China's socialist democratic politics. On March 2018, at the joint session of the CPPCC National Committee, general secretary Xi Jinping first put forward the theory of "new party system", and pointed out clearly that "the multi-party cooperation and political consultation system led by the CPC is a basic political system in China. It is the great political creation of the Chinese Communist Party, the Chinese people and all the democratic parties and independents, and it grows from the soil of China." The new party system came out. And from the three dimensions of interest representatives, political functions and political effects, it points out the characteristics of the new party system in China: the combination of Marx's political party theory and China's reality, effectively avoiding the disadvantages of the old party system representing minority and minority interest groups, and uniting all political parties and non party personages together and striving for common goals. It effectively avoided the drawbacks of one party's lack of supervision or multi-party rotation and vicious competition. Through institutionalization, procedures and standardized arrangements, it concentrated various opinions and suggestions, and promoted scientific decision-making and democratization. It effectively avoided the drawbacks of the old party system, which was limited by party interests, class interests, and regional and group interests. The new party system is not only in line with the reality in contemporary China, but also in line with the excellent culture advocated by the Chinese nation, which is always public, inclusive, seeking common ground while reserving differences and so on. It is a significant contribution to human political civilization. On September 2019, general secretary Xi Jinping once again stressed in the speech of the central CPPCC working conference and celebrating the 70th anniversary session of the Chinese people's Political Consultative Conference that "consultative democracy is an important way to realize the leadership of the party and a unique form and unique advantage of our socialist democratic politics. We should give full play to the role of the special consultative body of the CPPCC, and make consultation democracy run through the whole process of performance, "adhere to and improve our new party system". These important discussions have profoundly expounded the rich connotation, distinctive characteristics and historical logic of the new party system in our country, and expounded the important advantages of developing multi-party cooperation in China and the development of socialist democratic politics. This is a further deepening of the understanding of the rule of socialist democracy in China and highlights the Chinese superiority that has been fully proved by practice.

From the earliest interpretation of the theory of deliberative democracy to the proposition of "new political party system", the theory of socialist consultative democracy in China has been increasingly enriched and perfected. Democracy is actually a system arrangement. The goal of socialist democratic politics and institutional arrangement, as pointed out in the nineteen major reports of the Communist Party of China, is "to embody the will of the people, safeguard the rights and interests of the people, inspire the creativity of the people, and ensure the people to be masters of the household by the system."

Three

General secretary Xi Jinping's speech at the central CPPCC working conference and celebrating the 70th anniversary session of the Chinese people's Political Consultative Conference, stressed: "we must play a good role of the special consultative body of the CPPCC, run through the whole process of consultative democracy, uphold democracy and enhance unity, achieve mutual understanding, build consensus and make joint efforts. Democratic supervision is carried out in important decision-making and deployment situations of the party and the state. Political consultation is the basic way of multi-party cooperation. It is also an important link of the CPC's scientific decision-making and democratic decision-making, reflecting the essence of socialist democratic politics that the people are masters of the family. Such political consultations include not only the political consultation between the CPC and the democratic parties and non party personages, but also the political consultation between the CPC and the democratic parties, non party personages and people of all nationalities in the CPPCC. Practice has fully proved that Chinese style democracy is feasible and effective in China.

In the process of promoting the development of socialist democratic politics by the Communist Party of China, especially since the eighteen Party's Congress, the practice of socialist consultative democracy in China has been comprehensively covered to the central, local and grass-roots communities, and a new realm of consultative democracy has been created. In 2015, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China issued the "opinions on strengthening the construction of socialist consultative democracy". For the first time, the CPPCC was the "specialized consultative body", which gave the CPPCC more consultative responsibilities. At the beginning of the founding of new China, the CPPCC was "the consultative organ of various parties", and the CPPCC was a "specialized consultative body". It reflected the deepening process of the CPPCC's functional orientation and the new orientation of CPPCC meeting the requirements of modernization of national governance.

This position highlights the unique position and unique role of CPPCC's deliberative democracy in the socialist consultative democracy system. From the perspective of the state political system, the CPPCC is an important part of China's political system. It is not only the organization of the patriotic united front of the Chinese people, but also the specialized agency for realizing multi-party cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party, an important component part of the national governance system, and a system arrangement with Chinese characteristics. From the perspective of the CPPCC itself, the process of carrying out the three functions of political consultation, democratic supervision and participation in politics and politics is the process of consultation, which embodies the functions of specialized consultative bodies. Moreover, CPPCC members have strong representativeness, wide contact and inclusiveness, and have the ability to undertake the important task of specialized consultative bodies. From the perspective of comparative advantage, the CPPCC has great advantages which can not be replaced by other forms of consultative democracy. It has not only the broad representation of the organization and the maximum tolerance of politics, but also the many aspects of the political parties, state and social political relations. A wide range of channel advantages, including consultation, supervision, participation and cooperation, is an important channel for socialist consultative democracy and a specialized consultative body.

Under the basic political system of multi-party cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party, the CPPCC as the earliest institutionalized form of deliberative democracy, from the "consultative organs of various parties" to "specialized consultative bodies", has achieved a historic leap in the understanding of functional orientation. Political consultations and CPPCC consultations belong to the category of political consultation and are important components of the system of socialist consultative democracy. As for the main contents of negotiation, the two complement each other. The basic characteristics of political party consultation are small scale, high level and special topic. The basic characteristics of CPPCC consultation are large-scale, wide range and comprehensiveness. The long-term strategic issues of China's economic and social development, the adjustment of major interests relations, and the major social problems that the masses are generally concerned with need not only political consultation, but also wider consultation and social consensus. As a special consultative body, the CPPCC can, through in-depth consultative democracy and consultative democratic supervision, pool ideas and work together to promote the concerted efforts of the government and the community to solve the major social contradictions in the new era and benefit the country and people. It can be seen that the positioning of the "special consultative body" of the CPPCC is an extension and extension of Party consultation.

With the continuous development of comprehensive deepening reform, the CPPCC has played the role of "specialized consultative body", and has further formed a wide field, multi-level and normalized consultation and administration pattern. Consultative democracy, a unique form of socialist democracy rooted in the soil of China, has unique advantages that are consistent with China's national conditions: first, the advantages of brainstorming; two, the advantages of party cooperation in good faith; three, the advantages of reaching broad consensus; and four, the advantages of low cost and high efficiency. In the current Chinese society, where the interests are diversified, the CPPCC, as a "specialized consultative body", directly promotes the direct dialogue between the government departments and the grass-roots masses, and helps the government departments to understand the social and public opinion, effectively respond to the needs and aspirations of the masses, and promote the rational and civilized political culture and atmosphere of the whole society.

China's socialist democratic politics has been continuously developed and perfected in practice. While establishing and improving electoral democracy, the role of socialist consultative democracy in China is becoming more and more significant and effective. The socialist consultative democracy under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, while carrying forward the people's democracy, pays attention to system construction, encourages people to participate in the political life in a wider and orderly way, expands the incremental path of deliberative democracy practice, and activates the stock resources of the socialist system. The nineteen major reports of the party clearly point out that we should "promote institutionalization, standardization and procedure of socialist democracy, and ensure that people manage the state affairs in various ways and forms according to law, manage economic and cultural undertakings, manage social affairs, consolidate and develop a lively, stable and united political situation".

The consultative system of the CPPCC and the new party system have demonstrated the vivid practice of deliberative democracy with Chinese characteristics. Especially since the eighteen Party's Congress, the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as its core has enriched and developed the theory of deliberative democracy with Chinese characteristics. The practice of deliberative democracy with Chinese characteristics has proved that the system of socialist consultative democracy is conducive to bringing together the positive energy of the whole society. Drawing the largest concentric circle is a systematic arrangement rooted in the soil of China and with distinct Chinese characteristics, and it also enriches, develops and contributes to human political culture.

(author: member of the National Committee of the Chinese people's Political Consultative Conference and Research Fellow of the contemporary Chinese Institute of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences)

Author: Zhong Ying       Editor in chief: Wu Guijiao
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