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A review of the research on the discourse right of the new political party system in China

Release time: 2020-05-28: Source: United Front studies 2020 third issue

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Abstract: the introduction of the "new Chinese political party system" not only highlights the confidence of the Chinese Communists in the new era, but also reflects the increasingly significant world significance of our party system. Domestic academic circles are paying more and more attention to the discourse right of the new party system in China. The research results include: starting from the word "right", defining the connotation of the discourse power of the new party system in China through the superposition of "political party system" and "discourse power"; from containing the hegemony of the western political party system, enhancing the institutional self-confidence of our people, and improving the effectiveness of the new party system in China. This paper expounds the significance of its construction, expounds the opportunities for its construction from the increasingly prominent advantages of our party system, the role of philosophy and Social Sciences, and the international pattern of "rising East and west", and expounds the constraining factors of its construction from the aspects of Western discourse hegemony harassment, the lack of Chinese discourse building ability, the inmaturity of the system itself, and the shortcomings of the international communication mechanism. From the aspects of strengthening discourse awareness, adapting to generative logic, expanding international communication and constructing discourse system, this paper expounds its construction path. The research on the discourse power of the new party system in China should further expand the depth of the research contents, enhance the positivism and applicability of the research, enhance the systematicness and comprehensiveness of the research, and pay attention to the practical experience gained by the West in gaining the right to speak.

Key words: China's new party system; construction of discourse power; multi-party cooperation; institutional advantages; soft power; western discourse hegemony.

Chinese map classification number: D613 document identification code: A article number: 2096-3378 (2020) 03-0101-08

Author: Zhang duo, PhD candidate of Marx School of Xiamen University.

Foundation project: key research project of the National Social Science Fund "the inner logic of self-confidence in socialism with Chinese characteristics" (15AKS010)

Twenty-first Century is the era of "soft power" competition among countries, and also the era of institutional competition among countries. Institutional discourse power is an important reflection of cultural soft power, which is closely related to the right to existence and development of the system. As an important part of the modern state political system, the party system implies the competition among States, status, interests, ideology and discourse power. "We should admit that we are always new players in the grasp and application of international discourse power," he said. [1] Western people with ulterior motives distort the political party system in China by taking advantage of the long-term media platform advantage. Since the eighteen Party's Congress, the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as its core has put forward new requirements for the construction of our party system and its discourse power. General secretary Xi Jinping put forward the expression of the "new political party system in China", which means that from the past with the "socialist political system with Chinese characteristics", it stresses the uniqueness of the party system and evolves to the new era with a focus on the world significance of the party system. The strategic task of the construction of the discourse power of the political party system urgently needs the better role of philosophy and Social Sciences, and enhances the creativity, charisma and credibility of the discourse system of our party system. Based on the existing research results of the domestic academic circles, this paper sorts out and comments on the connotation, significance, opportunities, constraints and practical paths of the discourse power of the new party system in China.

I. the connotation of the discourse power of the new political party system in China

The understanding of the discourse power of the new political party system in China is mainly based on the word "right". Through the superposition of the theory of "party system" and "discourse power", the basic connotation and denotation of the concept of the right to speak in the new party system of China are determined and expanded.

(1) interpretation from the perspective of "power"

Some scholars believe that in the discourse theory, discourse power is used to refer to the power of the speaker, which is directly related to whether the speech can continue and whether it has the ability to influence or control others. Based on this analysis framework, the discourse power of the new party system in China is "the power of multi-party cooperation system to influence the object of discourse by using its own discourse system, that is, the guiding force, influence and control power of multi-party cooperation system" [2].

(two) interpretation of multiple dimensions from "power"

In general, "power" not only refers to power relations. Some scholars believe that the discourse power of the new party system in China is a kind of discourse right. [3], it refers to the right to speak, communicate, debate and other languages, and the subject of discourse must have the qualification to express "multi-party cooperation discourse". Some scholars have extended the "right" to "interpretation power, expression power and guidance right" [4], and further refined it as "the definition right, the right to formulate standards and rules, and the right to appraise the right and wrong of the multi-party cooperation system in the party political category" [5].

(three) interpretation from two perspectives: "International - domestic"

From the point of view of its practice, on the one hand, the right to speak reshaped the public's recognition of the political system; on the other hand, the right to speak reveals the legitimacy of the development path of the country. Some scholars believe that the discourse power of China's new party system should consist of two systems. First, the domestic discourse system. This system should enable the masses to understand and identify with China's political party system and further enhance the institutional self-confidence of the masses. The two is the international discourse system. This system should make clear the actual effectiveness of this system in our political life, so as to further gain the understanding, recognition and conviction of the international community [6].

(four) interpretation from the perspective of "soft power"

Some scholars believe that the discourse power of China's new political party system is a kind of institutional discourse right in strict sense and an important part of the national soft power. The discourse power of the multi-party cooperation system is the influence produced by the multi-party cooperation system, which is embodied in defining the scope of the party's discourse communication, setting the topic and agenda of the party discussion, guiding the public opinion on the evaluation of the party theory, and dispel doubts and doubts about the theoretical problems of the party [7].

Two, the significance of constructing the discourse right of the new party system in China.

The domestic academic circles mainly discuss the necessity and urgency of building the discourse right of the new party system in China from the aspects of containing the hegemony of the western political party system, enhancing the institutional self-confidence of the Chinese people, and improving the effectiveness of the new party system in China.

(1) curb the hegemony of Western political party system.

The political party system in China has the scientific nature of theory and the objectivity of practice. It is also suitable for China's national conditions and also of world significance. But for a long time, the West has shaped the discourse hegemony by means of production concept, packaging theory and marketing idea, and denigrated the socialist system with Chinese characteristics in the name of "academic freedom". China's new party system has long been skeptical, distorted and vilified by the hegemonic discourse of the western developed countries. This seriously affects the domestic scholars and the general public to make a correct judgement of the party system. At the same time, the value and superiority of the Chinese political party system has long been ignored, underestimated or even depreciated by the international community, which has had a very negative impact on China's political contacts, expansion of the international "circle of friends" and the launching of the international united front work, and even affects the confidence of the social system with Chinese characteristics (8). The construction of the discourse power of China's new political party system has become the proper meaning of safeguarding our national interests and national ideology security. The peaceful rise of China needs the international political power of the party theory to match with it. [9], let the international community understand our party system comprehensively and realistically, reshape our country's image, and thoroughly change the predicament of "Aphasia" and "abuse" in our party system.

(two) enhance the system confidence of our citizens.

The self-confidence of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics is an important political proposition put forward by the party since its eighteen largest. In theory, self-confidence is the affirmative judgement of the subject to the object. System self-confidence is a state reflecting the support and support of the members of the society to the existing system, and is related to the normal operation of the public power in the political system. Institutional self-confidence is a dynamic process of shaping, requiring specific discourse to create a perceived sense of belonging in the process of two-way interaction between subject and object. The construction of the discourse power of the political party system can promote unity and harmony among different social parties and political parties, and build consensus. Some scholars believe that the centripetal force of the party system should be improved and the authority of the party system should be reshaped so as to help the people form institutional self-confidence [10]. The establishment of the authority of the party system accords with the needs of social transformation, complies with the tide of world democratization, conforms to the direction of modern political development, and is the embodiment of modern political authority. The right to speak is an important part of reshaping the authority of the party system. Enhancing the discourse power of China's multi-party cooperation can promote the effectiveness of the system and the sustainable development of the system, and promote the harmonious relationship between the political parties [11].

(three) improving the effectiveness of China's new party system.

The construction of the discourse power of China's new political party system means that people are willing to internalize the value pursuit of the system into a human value standard, so as to motivate themselves to consciously observe and maintain the system, thereby reducing the operation cost of the system and improving the efficiency of the system. The insistence and improvement of the new party system in China need to rely on the party in power and the party in power. The identification of the party system is a prerequisite for its consistent behavior. To enhance the effectiveness of multi-party cooperation system is closely related to the two party's right to speak for the political party system. Some scholars have pointed out that the construction of the multi-party cooperation discourse system generally accepted by the political parties, groups and all walks of life in the country and further enhancing the discourse power of the political party system is essentially a kind of insistence and improvement on the party system in China [12].

Three, the opportunity to build a new political party system in China.

Since the eighteen Party's Congress, the advantages of our party system have become increasingly prominent, the role of philosophy and social sciences has been constantly emphasized, and the international pattern "east to west" has provided realistic conditions for the construction of the discourse power of the political party system.

(1) the basic basis: the advantages of China's new party system are becoming increasingly prominent.

Exploring the unique advantages of our party system is an important way to set up the right to speak. First, from the perspective of social integration, the modernization of any country requires the political system to have a high degree of social integration function, so as to prevent social fragmentation. China's new party system can represent and effectively realize the greatest common divisor of the interests of the Chinese people and the Chinese nation, and has a comparative advantage in accordance with China's national conditions in terms of institutional efficiency [13]. Second, from the point of view of interest expression, political parties are bridges between the society and the state, and are tools for expressing interests. In terms of interest expression, the western political party system has always been unable to jump out of the operational logic of "primarily representing the interests of a strong group". Under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, the democratic parties of our country widely absorb the opinions of the masses, and all kinds of interest demands can continuously flow along this vertical axis [14]. Thirdly, from the perspective of democratic decision-making, an important function of the party system is to optimize government decision-making. Western political parties attach importance to checks and balances of power, and their so-called "democracy" is often the party's struggle for Democracy between parties, which leads to political parties becoming the power to tear the society. Under the framework of China's new political party system, the ruling party and participating parties accomplish the input and production and output of politics in turn. China's new party system can concentrate on major events, achieve scientific, efficient and effective decision making, thus forming a strong development force and maximizing the liberation and development of social productive forces [15]. Fourthly, from the perspective of democratic supervision, the drastic change of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe and its "one party system" led to the lack of supervision of the Communist Party. The supervision and checks and balances between the western parties are built on the competition of the party, with serious party bias, and easy to lose the objectivity and impartiality of the judgment of things [16]. The supervision of Chinese participating parties has the positive significance of surpassing general supervision. Cooperative supervision facilitates the optimal allocation of political resources, reduces the cost of administration and improves the executive power of the government [17].

(two) effective protection: the party and the state attach great importance to Philosophy and social sciences.

Since the eighteen Party's Congress, the party and the state have attached great importance to Philosophy and social sciences. The Central Committee emphasizes the role of philosophy and Social Science in China, and calls for strengthening the construction of discourse system and academic discourse right. In the new era, the construction of the discourse system and discourse power of the new political party system in China is the proper meaning of speeding up the construction of philosophy and social science with Chinese characteristics. Theoretical workers should grasp the opportunity of the development of philosophy and Social Sciences and realize the reconstruction and development of discourse system and discourse power [18]. Some scholars further pointed out that with the continuous improvement of the multi-party cooperation system after the reform and opening up and the continuous improvement of its effectiveness, the contemporary Chinese political party research center, Peking University political party research center, the central socialist Institute's political party system research center, and the Chongqing multi-party cooperation historical research center have been set up to explore the construction of a new Chinese political party system discourse system in Renmin University of China. The personnel and research platform of discourse power can be built [5].

(three) historical opportunity: the current international pattern "east rises to the west".

Some scholars have seen that since twenty-first Century, especially after the global financial crisis in 2008, the developed economies are in a predicament of weak growth and sluggish growth for a long time. The western democratic system presents an inevitable trend of decline. The implementation of the western political party system in the late developing countries also faces many crises. The hegemony of Western democratic discourse began to fade (19). The decline of the western world is also reflected in the government's ability to deal with emergencies. Taking the new crown pneumonia epidemic as an example, the Western bipartisan or multi-party system has greatly delayed the prevention and control of epidemic situation based on the interests of the parties [20]. In contrast, in the process of globalization, the focus of world economic development shifted from developed countries to developing countries represented by China. At present, western scholars have heated discussions about the academic trend of "Chinese experience" and "China mode", thus creating a good international environment for the construction of Chinese discourse system and discourse power. Therefore, under the background of profound adjustment of the current international political and economic order, China should seize the opportunity to enhance the international discourse power of China's new party system by striving for the right of agenda setting and system building in the future international system [21].

Four, constraining the right to speak in China's new political party system.

The discourse system of Party System in China has not yet formed a complete theoretical system, and the construction of discourse power is facing many practical difficulties. Scholars mainly discussed the restrictive factors of constructing the discourse right of the new party system in China from the aspects of Western discourse hegemony harassment, lack of Chinese discourse building ability, the immature maturity of the system itself, and the shortcomings of the international communication mechanism.

(1) harassment of Western discourse hegemony

From the international perspective, western discourse hegemony is squeezing the discourse space of China's new party system. Although the cold war has ended, it does not mean that the Cold War mentality has disappeared. Western party politics has a history of more than 300 years. After World War II, with the advantage of first mover, the Western powers bundled social welfare and party system, promoted "universal values", promoted the process of democratization in various countries, and carried out theoretical attacks and Thoughts on the party system which did not conform to the western political party mode. Its essential purpose was to maintain power politics and hegemonism [22]. The western developed countries' strategy of "peaceful evolution" has never stopped. Scholars believe that western ideological bias stems from the differences between Chinese and Western cultures. This natural difference directly reduces the extent to which Chinese discourse is accepted by the world. For a long time, "Western universalism" believed that western culture was superior to and higher than non Christian civilization. It had a partial understanding of Oriental culture. It believed that human culture should transcend national, racial, national boundaries and beliefs and focus on the universal values of the West (23).

(two) insufficient capacity for discourse construction in China

Although China's hard power is developing rapidly, there is still a lack of awareness and ability to enhance the discourse power of the new party system in China. From the perspective of national psychology, some scholars believe that the cultural and national psychological challenges facing the construction of multi-party cooperation discourse system are mainly manifested in the self humming national inferiority complex. "We believe that when we talk about democratic constitutionalism, talk about political party system, talk about democracy under Rule of law, we must call it Europe and America" [24]. From the perspective of changes in Chinese social strata, some scholars believe that the transformation of economic structure, social structure and ideology and values will inevitably have a profound impact on the political structure, political operation and political party system in the central position of political structure [25]. In particular, the current trend of diverse social thoughts occupies the discourse space, and the new liberalism trend in China is against the socialist system and advocating multiparty system politically. [26]. Some scholars believe that the construction of political party system in China has its own theoretical predicament. This is mainly reflected in the following: "follow the concept of" Chinese political party system "which belongs to the system and mechanism level, so as to express the important problems that China's party politics has extensive practice and enrich the field of innovation, which objectively restricts the effective response of intellectual support and the in-depth exploration of the value of the think tank. [27]

(three) the system itself is not mature.

The internal contradiction of things is the internal cause, which is the source and motive force of the movement of things, and is the fundamental reason for the development of things. The theory and practice of the discourse of the political party system reflect rationality and scientificity so as to enable our party system to have the right to speak. However, the political party system in China has a tendency to simplify in practice [28]. In terms of political consultations, Party consultation is highly arbitrary, asymmetric information, low quality of consultation, unbalanced development, some grass-roots implementation is not in place, notification instead of negotiation, especially some supervised consultations are more difficult. In some places, there exist different levels of formal significance than practical significance [29]. All these phenomena have weakened the discourse power of China's new party system.

(four) there are defects in the international communication mechanism.

The defects of China's international communication have led to the fact that our party theory has fallen into the "vicious circle" that the main reason for its formation lies in the realization of the platform of discourse communication platform and the discourse power of the political party system. "Western news agencies monopolized 80% to 90% of the news spread in most parts of the world, and almost drowned other voices. However, the information content in Chinese still accounts for only about 5% of the total, and the influence and the right to speak are obviously weaker. [30] it can be said that because the western media can grasp the initiative or even control power of news dissemination, it is difficult for the international community to accurately recognize the political life of our country. Some scholars have analyzed the drawbacks of the existing communication system in China: official discourse is often difficult to resonate with the rational and sensibility of folk discourse. In foreign propaganda, most of their discourse is simple preaching. These two kinds of publicity methods are difficult to meet the actual needs at home and abroad [9]. Some scholars believe that the plight of our party system is mainly due to the fact that the platform of international exchanges in political science is less and smaller. In the field of political science, there is still a shortage of high-level researchers and masters. "31". Some scholars directly use the western political "meta discourse" to look at China's political development, and the result is inevitably poles apart.

Five, the way to build the discourse right of China's new political party system.

As for the way to construct the discourse right of China's new political party system, the academic circles believe that we should strengthen the sense of discourse, conform to the generative logic, expand the international communication and build discourse system. These paths are of great significance not only for the construction of the discourse power of the new party system in China, but also for the improvement of China's institutional discourse in global governance.

(1) strengthen the sense of discourse.

Strengthening the discourse consciousness of political party system is to establish system confidence and enhance discourse consciousness, which is the basic premise for improving the discourse power of the political party system. First of all, we must break away from western discourse dependence and worshiping. We should strengthen the theoretical innovation of party system, do a good job in popularizing knowledge of political parties and party systems, and actively expose the limitations and deceptive practices of the western party system [32]. Secondly, we should change from passive thinking to active thinking [33]. Some scholars have pointed out that ideological and public products in modern politics are also afraid of deep alley. System performance does not necessarily bring about the promotion of discourse power. Therefore, we need to have the consciousness of building the discourse right of the new party system in China. We should turn "passive" into "initiative", "occasionally" as "constant", and "whisper" as "bold" [34]. Once again, facing the cultural invasion under the guidance of capitalist ideology, we must dare to accept challenges, eliminate the confusion and belief crisis brought by all kinds of social thoughts, and constantly improve the recognition of the masses and the society to the state and party system, so that they can accept and approve emotionally, support and support in the deep heart, and actively practice and implement in action. [35]

(two) adaptation to generative logic

There are similarities between the construction of discourse power and the right to speak in a political party system. Some path strategies can be applied to each other. Some scholars believe that the right to speak is constructed according to a logical relationship: "one is the authority of the speaker; the two is the credibility of the content; the three is the powerful ideological propaganda machine; and the four is the balance between the nationality and the cosmopolitan nature of the concept and subject choice". [36] according to the generative logic of discourse power, first of all, "the possession and control of international discourse power is related to the strength of national strength" (37). "Behind the discourse power is the support of strength" is the consensus of most scholars. Secondly, further improving and developing China's multi-party cooperation system, highlighting the superiority of our party system is the premise and foundation for enhancing the influence, attraction and credibility of the system, and thus gaining the right to speak, and can provide a steady stream of Chinese samples [18]. Most scholars put forward the countermeasures to improve the party system from the angle of improving the ruling style of the Communist Party of China, strengthening the self construction of democratic parties and enhancing the level of inter party consultation and democracy. Thirdly, in the era of Internet, to enhance the right to speak in China, we should improve the means of communication, build platform for discourse and enhance the ability of communication. Some scholars have discussed how to realize discourse in the new media era and occupy the high ground of public opinion propaganda [38]. Finally, China's political party system has been recognized internationally. It should overcome the exclusiveness of cultural closures, absorb the advantages and disadvantages of various cultures, and handle the relationship with western discourse system. It should lay stress on studying the psychology of all countries and peoples and lay a solid foundation for enhancing international discourse power. [39]

(three) expand international communication.

In the new era, China's programme plays an irreplaceable role in the global political, economic and security fields. "To gain more discourse power, we must take an active part in international organizations and global governance, strengthen communication and contact with political parties in various countries in the world, strengthen the understanding of the world's new party system in China, attract the world to cooperate with China in political parties, enhance the charm and attractiveness of China's new party system, and seize the right to speak." [40]. This is also an important way to eliminate the misunderstanding of the new political party system by the international community. Some scholars believe that the status of the Democratic Party is relatively detached and has the potential of external communication, which is easier to be accepted by the foreign party in the dissemination of Chinese voice. It can be clarified by facts that China is not the so-called "one party autocratic" country [41]. Some scholars believe that at present, we should seize the historical opportunity of China's advocacy of the community of human destiny and the "one belt and one road" initiative, and promote exchanges and interactions with the western countries in terms of high-level, academic and non-governmental sectors, so as to enhance the understanding and understanding of the western common people's new political party system in the foreign cultural exchanges. We should use a series of cooperation mechanisms to widen the platform for the research and exchange of the international discourse of China's new party system [42].

(four) constructing discourse system

Once the discourse forms a system, it has the cohesive function of social life interpretation and values. To build a multi-party cooperation system discourse system on the whole is conducive to further consolidate the discourse power of our party system. At present, the academic theoretical discourse system of the party system needs to be constructed urgently. "Compared with policy interpretation, rational interpretation is to enhance the depth and validity of party system identification with its own system, science and rationality" [43]. Some scholars believe that the construction of the discourse system of China's multi-party cooperation system in the new era should rely on "the Communist Party of China, the democratic parties, theoretical workers and overseas researchers to work together, perform their duties and cooperate with each other" [18]. Because the western democratic system has seized the opportunity of discourse, and the mainstream of the practice of political party practice in early China is imitating the foreign mode, some scholars have not analyzed the political party system based on the two striking characteristics of "communist leadership" and "multi-party cooperation". Some scholars believe that "we should advance the research on the local experience of China's multi-party cooperation system, and dare to use the words of Chinese characteristics, Chinese style and Chinese style to explain the general and special law of our party system." [44] some scholars believe that although the current party system in China has achieved remarkable achievements, it needs to draw lessons from ancient and modern political science at home and abroad. As an epigenetic party system, we must scientifically and rationally criticize and absorb the advantages and experiences of the party system in the world and make it useful for us. [45].

Six, research review

From their academic backgrounds and research perspectives, scholars have studied the issues related to the discourse power of the new party system in China. The existing research can provide theoretical enlightenment for further in-depth study in the future, but some weak links still need to be breakthroughs.

(1) expand the depth of research contents.

First of all, there are many studies on the two problems of "Chinese political party system" and "discourse right". The study of the two superposition as a concept is rather thin. Secondly, there are many researches on the defense and interpretation of the party system. There are many studies on the development process of the party system, and there is less research on the combination of theory and practice. The study of dialogues is mainly concentrated on the perspective of "problem and countermeasure". There are shortcomings in the study of the evolution and change of discourse power in China's history. This is not good for us to draw lessons from the construction of discourse power.

(two) strengthening the positivism and applicability of research.

At present, the research on discourse power of party system mainly adopts traditional theoretical analysis methods such as induction, summarization and generalization. The path and strategy proposed are inevitably idealized and lack of operability. If we can conduct in-depth investigation and study through questionnaires and seminars, we will propose a feasible proposal to construct the discourse right of our party system, which will greatly improve the credibility and persuasiveness of the research results.

(three) enhance the systematicness and comprehensiveness of research.

The research on the discourse power of the party system is an interdisciplinary study. However, from the perspective of the composition of the subject, the source of the researcher is single. The research contents of different institutional researchers are difficult to integrate, making the research on the discourse power of the party system lack of systematization, presenting a single research perspective, more repeated discussions, and lack of academic results with theoretical depth.

(four) concerned about the practical experience of the West in winning the right to speak.

The study of Western discourse power in China is often conducted in a critical perspective. Objective analysis of the western world how to win the right to speak can provide inspiration and mirror for the construction and promotion of our discourse power.

Author: Zhang Duo       Editor in chief: Wu Guijiao
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