北京pk赛车10计划精准版

Set as home page    Join in collection   Mobile version

Platform for participating in politics and Politics   Mailbox landing

Current location: Home Page > Online school > Recommended reading

Retrospect and Prospect of China's education development in the past 70 years

Release time: 2020-01-08 source: Guangming Network - Theoretical channel

 enlarge

 narrow

Over the past 70 years, new China has made brilliant achievements in education. We should observe the development of Chinese education in the historical coordinate axis, and strengthen the understanding of the rule of education from the evolution of the major policies of the state, so as to lay a solid foundation for the sustainable development of Chinese education.

First, China's education has gone through exploration and brilliant achievements.

At the beginning of the founding of new China, the level of education development was low. Over 80% of the country's population was illiterate, and the enrollment rate of school-age children was only about 20%. As of 2018, there were 518 thousand and 800 schools at all levels and 276 million in all levels and 16 million 728 thousand and 500 full-time teachers. These data confirm the great changes that have taken place in China's education in the past 70 years and the brilliant achievements it has made. Through combing the three dimensions of compulsory education, high school education and higher education, we can fully demonstrate the brilliant history of Chinese education after 70 years of exploration.

(1) compulsory education: universal, balanced and high quality

The "common programme of the Chinese people's Political Consultative Conference" adopted in 1949 pointed out that compulsory education should be popularized step by step. Since then, the new China's compulsory education has opened a new stage of development. In 1958, the State Council issued the regulations on the decentralization of the right to management of educational undertakings, clearly delegating the right to manage educational undertakings. In the same year, the State Council's instructions on educational work encouraged the collective and the masses to run schools, and fully mobilized the enthusiasm of the society into the development of education. Until the 1985 issue of the Central Committee's decision on the reform of the education system, China's compulsory education formed a pattern of taking state financial input as the main body, with various collective running schools and people's participation as a supplement. With the reality of big education in poor countries, the enrollment rate of school-age children has increased significantly, but the quality of education has not been able to meet the needs of the masses to receive higher quality education.

In 1986, the compulsory education law clearly pointed out that after nine years of compulsory education, compulsory education entered the important stage of "universal education". In 2001, the State Council's decision on the reform and development of basic education proposed that "two bases" work is the most important task of local people's governments at all levels. In 2011, with the "two bases" national inspection in four provinces and autonomous regions such as Tibet, Sichuan, Qinghai and Gansu, compulsory education was popularized at all county level units. Since the promulgation of the compulsory education law in 1986, China has popularized free compulsory education in urban and rural areas for 25 years, and fundamentally solved the problem of schooling for children of school age. After the popularization of compulsory education, the gap between the level of education and the quality of education between regions, between urban and rural areas and between schools has become prominent. Promoting the balanced development of compulsory education and ensuring that all school-age children and adolescents receive fair and quality compulsory education has become a strategic task of compulsory education in the new era.

From learning to learning, China's compulsory education has officially entered the stage of quality improvement. In September 5, 2012, the State Council issued the "opinions on further promoting the balanced development of compulsory education" by 48 [2012]. The opinions further clarify the responsibilities of local governments at all levels, and propose that the basic goal of promoting balanced development of compulsory education is that each school is in line with the national school running standard, and that school funding is guaranteed; educational resources meet the needs of school education and teaching, and the curriculum prescribed by the state is set up; the allocation of teachers is more reasonable and the overall quality of teachers is improved.

(two) high school education: adjustment, coordination and transformation

In 1949, only 315 thousand students were enrolled in high schools in China. At the beginning of new China, the educational structure of high school was very immature, and ordinary high school and secondary school education complement each other. In 1950, the first National Conference on workers' and peasants' education was revised and adopted the Interim Measures for implementation of workers' and peasants' fast track secondary schools. In the process of taking over, reorganizing and reforming the existing schools, secondary professional schools and technical schools have been flourishing, laying the foundation for the development of Vocational Education in China. During the cultural revolution, the influence of high school education was very serious. After the reform and opening up, adjusting and improving the educational structure of senior middle school as soon as possible has become an important task of education reform, and ordinary high school education has been developing steadily. From 1978 to 1994, secondary vocational education gradually resumed, forming a two track education system of secondary vocational education and general secondary education. After the expansion of college enrollment, the secondary vocational education declined due to the rigid school running mode and the educational background. The three National Conference on Vocational Education in 2002, 2004 and 2005 recalibrated the adjustment of the direction of the development of high school education. The high school education was constantly adjusted in the exploration, and the basic tone of the coordinated development between senior high school and vocational high school was basically determined. At the same time, in 2001 and 2014, the two high school curriculum reform was launched. In the high school education stage, the education mode of Li De Shu was formally established, and the educational function in high school was transformed from selection to education. The new college entrance examination policy in 2014 is also promoting efforts to protect the state in selecting talents. It also provides the possibility of individualized selection for each student's success and guides the transformation of the goals of ordinary high school education and education. The introduction of the new college entrance examination policy puts forward the requirements for the transformation of the basic education development from the fundamental direction. In the basic education stage, we began to comprehensively reflect on the educational orientation and improve the educational mode, from knowledge base to ability standard, from selection to education. At this point, the high school education has become the critical stage to link the development of basic education and higher education. It is the starting point of students' colorful life and the starting point for the professionalization of higher education.

In June 2019, the guiding opinions of the general office of the State Council on the reform of the mode of educating people in ordinary high schools in the new era pointed out: "carrying out the party's educational policy in an all-round way, implementing the basic task of the moral education, developing quality education, following the educational law, and deepening education in the light of the working objectives of cohesion of the people, perfection of personality, development of manpower, cultivation of talents, and benefit for the people. The reform of key links and key areas must resolutely reverse the one-sided examination oriented education tendency, raise the level of education conscientiously, lay a solid foundation for students to adapt to social life, receive higher education and future career development, and strive to cultivate socialist builders and classes who are fully developed in virtue, intelligence and physical culture.

(three) higher education: recovery, enrollment expansion and connotation

In 1949, there were only 117 thousand college students in China. In 1950, the Executive Yuan approved the Provisional Regulations for colleges and universities, and new China gradually began to take over and transform the old universities. After 1952, according to the needs of national construction, a large number of colleges and universities were adjusted nationwide. During the period from 1961 to 1963, according to the policy of "adjustment, consolidation, enrichment and improvement" by the CPC Central Committee, the educational cause continued to be greatly adjusted, and the teaching quality and scientific research level of colleges and universities were greatly improved. In 1977, a major decision to resume the college entrance examination has basically restored the framework of Chinese higher education through the nirvana of the Phoenix. It has made personnel training and economic and social interactive development return to the track of health, laying a valuable human resource foundation for cadre training and industrial talent reserve at the beginning of reform and opening up.

The enrollment expansion policy for college students before and after 1998 is an important milestone in the popularization and popularization of higher education in China, which means that the equalization level of higher education enrollment opportunities has been greatly improved. The "2003-2007 year education revitalization action plan" put forward the implementation of the "teaching quality and teaching reform project in Colleges and universities". The state began to pay attention to optimizing the regional structure of higher education and properly controlling the growth rate of enrollment. "Satisfying the people's education" means that the primary demands of higher education should be changed from quantity to quality and more emphasis on connotative development. The nineteen major reports of the party put forward the idea of "accelerating the construction of first-class universities and first-class disciplines".

Two. Endogenous balance and transformation and upgrading of major education policies.

Over the past 70 years, Chinese education has been able to achieve these brilliant results through twists and turns. The most direct and direct impetus comes from the guiding role of education policy. Throughout the past 70 years, China's education policy has undergone three changes. The first is the transformation from the tool of serving state politics to the foundation of socialist modernization. The second time is to emphasize the basic knowledge and basic skills from the early stage of reform and opening to the core, and to cultivate all-round and complete people with core literacy as the core. The third is to improve the quality of workers to promote economic development and to upgrade the quality of the Chinese nation so as to achieve national rejuvenation. The three change reflects the gradual deepening of the basic understanding of educational function, purpose and mission. This has a fundamental impact on the reform and development of Chinese education.

(1) the choice of Educational Public Policy: from fair opportunity to fair quality

1. policy guarantees for equitable access to education

After the founding of new China, education opened doors to workers and peasants, and actively carried out workers' and peasants' education. The first National Conference on Education held in December 1949 clearly pointed out that schools should open doors for workers, peasants and workers, peasants and young people. The people's University and the workers' and peasants' fast school are set up to cultivate talents. Major workers complement their education. In order to facilitate the entry of workers and peasants' children, governments at all levels pay special attention to increasing schools in industrial cities, industrial and mining areas and rural secondary schools and providing financial support. According to statistics in 1954, 82% of the workers and peasants in primary schools in China accounted for more than 60% of the middle school students. In 1953, the number of college students born from workers and peasants accounted for 27.39% of the total number of new students.

This kind of education highlights the opportunities for education of workers, peasants and workers and peasants. It is in line with the fact that the low education level of the laboring masses is at that time and is of great significance to the construction of education service economy. In particular, the decision on Reform of schooling announced by the Government Council in October 1, 1951 has made our school system clear in the form of decrees, and marked a new stage of planned and systematic development.

In May 27, 1985, the decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on the reform of the education system clearly stated that nine years compulsory education should be implemented step by step. As a result, the state has popularized compulsory education as a major strategic decision, and local governments spare no efforts to accomplish this historic task. This provides equal rights to education for young children, and is established in the form of statute in the law of the People's Republic of China on compulsory education.

2. pursuit of quality fairness

The outline of the national medium and long term educational reform and development plan (2010-2020 years) has promoted fairness as the basic education policy of the state and regarded quality improvement as the core task of educational reform and development. We should set up the educational development concept with the core of improving the quality, set up the management system and working mechanism guided by improving the quality of education, and focus on the allocation of educational resources and the focus of school work to strengthen teaching links and improve the quality of education.

The nineteen major reports of the party put forward that every child can enjoy fair and quality education. The intermingling of education equity and education quality will be a basic pattern of China's education development for a long time to come. To realize the development of quality education, we need to really implement the basic task of the moral education, promote the development of education equity, continue to deepen the educational reform, and accelerate the modernization of education. Specific to the reality of education is to balance the education of urban and rural areas, the development of education in eastern, central and western regions, and narrow the gap. We should strengthen education in the central and western regions and rural areas, continue to strengthen the construction of weak schools, and tilt the investment of resources and policies.

(two) education development strategy: from "priority development" to "foundation project".

In the initial stage of reform and opening up, great changes have taken place in the national development strategy, and education is one of the strategic priorities of economic construction. Deng Xiaoping once pointed out clearly that "if we do not grasp science and education, there will be no hope for the four modernizations and become empty words." In 1982, the twelve major reports of the Party established the status of education as the strategic focus of economic construction, and made education work enter a new stage of development. In 1987, the Thirteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China put forward that the development of science and technology and education should be placed first in order to transform the economic construction to the track of relying on scientific and technological progress and improving the quality of labourers. It can be seen that the Thirteenth National Congress of the party closely linked the educational cause with the party's basic line in the primary stage of socialism and the strategic objective of economic development. In 1992, the report of the 14th National Congress of the Communist Party of China clearly pointed out that scientific and technological progress, economic prosperity and social development fundamentally depend on improving the quality of workers and cultivating large numbers of talents. We must put education in the strategic position of giving priority to development, and strive to improve the ideological and ethical standards and scientific and cultural level of the whole nation. This is the fundamental plan for realizing China's modernization.

From the focus of economic strategy at the initial stage of reform and opening up to the first place of the economic strategy in 1980s, and then to the strategic position of giving priority to development in 1990s, the economic strategy gradually rose to the leading and overall strategy of the socialist modernization, and gradually rose to social prosperity and cultural progress from the important means of human resources development, scientific and technological progress and economic development. The adjustment and progress of China's education development strategy can be seen from the foundation of the improvement of people's livelihood, national revitalization and even the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

In 2012, the party's eighteen major "Lide Shuren" as the fundamental task of education, placed the "people's satisfaction education" in the priority position of improving people's livelihood. The value orientation of education is gradually returning from the value of social work to the value of humanism. "Li De Shu Ren", "serving people's development" and "satisfying people's education" are the basic values of education. Education should lay a foundation for human growth and provide equal opportunities for human development.

(three) pursuit of educational value: from "double base center" to "core literacy"

In the initial stage of reform and opening up, China established the policy of socialist economic construction. The emancipation of the mind is reflected in education, which means more talents, more talents and better talents. In 1980s, according to the needs of social development and the goal of personnel training, basic education strengthened "double base" teaching. "Double bases" are basic knowledge and basic skills. The foundation of his argument is that the basic education is not a higher education, nor is it an employment education. It is an education that improves the quality of the people and is an education that lays the foundation of a basic cultural knowledge for a person's life, so it can only be strengthened and can not be weakened.

In 2014, the Ministry of Education issued the "opinions on comprehensively deepening curriculum reform and implementing the basic tasks of Li De Shu Ren". It was proposed that the Ministry of education organize research and put forward the core literacy system of students in each academic section, and clarify the necessary character and key abilities that students should have in order to meet the needs of lifelong development and social development. The core quality of students' development mainly refers to the students' essential qualities and key abilities that can meet the needs of lifelong development and social development. To study the core literacy of students is an important measure to implement the basic task of moral education. It is also an urgent need to adapt to the trend of world education reform and enhance the international competitiveness of China's education.

The core quality is the concretion of the party's educational policy, and it is an intermediate link connecting the macro educational philosophy, training objectives and specific education and teaching practice. Through the bridge of core literacy, the party's educational policy can be transformed into the specific requirements of educators and teaching practice, which are easy to understand by educators, and the essential qualities and key abilities that students should possess. Thus, from the middle level, we can thoroughly answer the fundamental questions of "what morality and what kind of people to build", and guide the reform of curriculum and education mode.

(four) upgrading of educational mission: improving the quality of the whole people so as to achieve national rejuvenation.

The educational mission has been increasingly integrated and enriched from the service science and technology progress, economic development to the improvement of service quality. Personal development and national development have been unified in the view of national education policy. The mission of education is gradually upgrading and upgrading on the basis of economic development and training of talents, and shouldering the responsibility of national revitalization. On 2014, general secretary Xi Jinping pointed out at the meeting with representatives of teachers and students of Beijing Normal University that education is an important way to improve the overall quality of the people and promote the all-round development of human beings, an important cornerstone for national revitalization and social progress, and a decisive cause for the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. Since the eighteen Party's Congress, our government has further defined the strategic goal of building a powerful country in education and placed it in the important strategic position of the Chinese nation's great rejuvenation infrastructure project.

  Three. New trends and trends in China's education development in the new era.

The glorious course of Chinese education in the past 70 years has attracted wide attention and high evaluation from the international community. China has entered the tide of world development and is playing an active role as a responsible big country. In May 2015, President Xi Jinping pointed out in his congratulatory letter to the International Conference on educational informatization that, in response to the development of information technology, we should promote educational reform and innovation, build a network, digitalization, individualization and life-long education system, and build a learning society where everyone learns, learn everywhere, and learn from time to time, and train a large number of innovative talents. Question.

First, "Internet + education" will take into account the higher level of efficiency and fairness. Internet technology helps to promote the sharing and dissemination of high-quality educational resources, enhance students' interest in learning and learning effects, and improve the quality and effectiveness of education and teaching. Internet technology breaks through the limitation of time and space in traditional education, bringing about great changes in educational concepts and models. It also shares the best quality educational resources, the most advanced educational concepts and the most innovative teaching modes, providing better educational opportunities for everyone and efficiency and fairness. As a developing country with large population, China holds the largest education in the world. China will continue to firmly implement the strategy of invigorating the country through science and education, and give full play to the great opportunities brought by modern science and technology to education through the Internet + education.

Second, building a learning society to serve everyone's lifelong development. Complying with the "education 2030 action framework" issued by UNESCO, the new mission of "inclusive, fair and lifelong learning for all" is given to education, giving everyone an equal opportunity to learn and become a new vision for the Chinese government to provide educational public services. China's education modernization 2035, released in 2019, put forward the idea of "building lifelong learning system serving the whole people", becoming one of the seven strategic tasks of China's educational modernization reform.

Third, participate in global education governance and create a community of human education. UNESCO advocates strengthening international and regional cooperation through intellectual cooperation, knowledge sharing and business partnership, which is highly consistent with the nineteen major initiatives of the party, namely, to actively develop global partnerships and expand interests with all countries. As an important member of the United Nations Educational, scientific and cultural organization, China has gradually demonstrated its core competitiveness in the field of education in the process of international exchange and cooperation, and has actively participated in building a community of human education.

(author: Associate Professor, Faculty of education, Beijing Normal University, research fellow, Chinese Academy of education and social development)

Author: Yang Yuchun       Editor: Administrator
Copyright 1996-2014 fymcyy.cn All Rights reserved Copyright China Democracy Promotion Association
Disclaimer, please contact our website map editor.
Jing ICP prepare 05026319 Beijing public network to secure 11010502017823
内蒙古自治区福利彩票app 十一选五北京地走势图带连线 北京11选5网上投注 凤凰vip彩票提现不了 凤凰彩票怎样解绑银行卡 北京彩票中心的电话 凤凰城棋牌真的吗 北京pk赛车10计划精准版 北京11选五奖金多少 利升棋牌G官方手机北京pk赛车10计划精准版