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The resolution of the Gutian conference and the foundation of the centralized and unified leadership system of the party

Release time: 2020-01-14 source: Red flag manuscript 2020/1

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The leadership of the Communist Party of China is the most essential feature of socialism with Chinese characteristics. It is the biggest advantage of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, and the party is the highest political leader. Standing back today, 90 years ago, the resolution of the ninth session of the Fourth Army of the Red Army adopted by the ninth Fourth Party Congress of the Red Army in December 29, 1929 (hereinafter referred to as the "resolution of the Gutian conference") made systematic provisions on the party's leadership system, organization system, propaganda system and ideological and political work system, and established a centralized and unified leadership system of the party. It has played a foundation role and still has far-reaching influence and contemporary value. Reviewing the resolution of the Gutian conference 90 years later, studying and summarizing the spirit of the Gutian conference is of great significance for implementing the spirit of the party in the fourth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee and upholding and improving the party's leadership system.

   "Who leads and listens to commanding": the core of the debate before the Gutian Conference

In January 1929, Mao Zedong and Zhu De led the main forces of the red Fourth Army to leave Jinggangshan to march into southern Jiangxi and Western Fujian. In mid March, they captured the Changting town of Western Fujian, and organized the first revolutionary county government in Fujian, the Revolutionary Committee of Changting county. They reorganized the red army and raised more than 50 thousand military salaries to solve the economic difficulties that had severely troubled the development of the army for several months. At the end of March, when the war broke out, the red army launched a war in the south of Jiangxi and thousands of miles west of Jiangxi, and liberated the counties of Xingguo, Yudu and Ningdu. The Longyan, Yongding, Shanghang and other counties in Fujian provided a solid foundation for the establishment of the revolutionary base area and the Fourth Red Army. Mao Zedong wrote the Qing Ping Le Jiang GUI war, describing the rapid development of the revolutionary situation at that time. It is a grievance to spread to the world. The red flag crossed the Ting River and went down to Shanghang, Longyan. Tidy up a piece of Jin Ou, divide the farmland to divide the ground really busy.

In the wake of the sharp news of the battlefield and the rising of the revolutionary situation, an argument erupted quietly within the Red Army. The core of the debate is the leadership of the Fourth Red Army and who commanded them, which led many of the Red Army's cadres into confusion. At the end of May, the red fourth army held an enlarged meeting of the front Committee, and debated about the question of what the party should manage, how much scope it was, whether the power of the front Committee was too centralized, whether there was a secretary's dictatorship or the tendency of the patriarchal system. At that time, Liu Angong, who was sent to the Red Army as the Secretary of the provisional Military Commission, made an unexpected move. He actually convened a meeting of the provisional Military Commission, and decided that the front Committee of Mao Zedong as secretary of the party should only discuss action matters and not other matters. The Military Commission is a subordinate body of the front Committee. The lower Party committee has restricted the power of the Party committee at the higher level and stipulated the scope of work of the Party committee at the higher level, which is unheard of in the party. Subsequently, there were more and more abnormal situations in the Red Army. For example, the report of the Red Army to the Central Committee was submitted to the Central Committee without the endorsement and approval of the former Secretary Mao Zedong. The red fourth army held a meeting of the war to inform Mao Zedong not to participate. In fact, it was divorced from the leading Committee of the party's leading body.

In the letter to Mao Zedong, commander of the first column, in June 14, 1929, he made a summary analysis of the wrong ideas inside the Red Army. He pointed out that "the current issue of controversy is not a personal and temporary problem", but a "principle issue". In June 14, 1929, These problems include: first, the leadership of the party can not be established absolutely in the Red Army. Second, to oppose politics and military affairs, it should be military leadership politics and "command external", which is actually a purely military viewpoint. Third, small group doctrine is serious. If it can not be led entirely by the collective party, the Red Army is just a good name. Fourth, the idea of extreme democratization. It is considered that "democracy from the top down" is a patriarchal system. Fifth, the view of non organization is rather serious. A few can disobey the majority, criticize not paying attention to politics, and like to engage in personal attacks. Sixth, the sense of discipline is weak. Military discipline is not a major political issue of the Red Army, and it is of no importance to destroy military discipline. Mao Zedong pointed out that we must fight against these erroneous ideas. The Red Army must obey the leadership of the party and make it a people's army that is different from all the old armies.

In fact, not only the Red Army but also the leadership of the party is not enough. In July 1929, the political resolution adopted by the first Congress of the Chinese Communist Party in July 1929 pointed out: "the number of Party members in Western Fujian is too small, and the total number of six counties is not up to three thousand, which is of course not enough to lead hundreds of thousands of new developing masses. Besides, the quality of the party members is not very good, the political level is too low, the organization is lax, discipline is slack, and the cadres lost too much in last year's struggle. For these reasons, the leadership of the party has been weakened. The biggest flaw is the lack of organization, which is just like a loose sand. " The resolution put forward clearly in the party's task, "to eliminate the remnants of opportunism and blindness, and to wash away the non proletarian consciousness such as localism, individualism and extreme democratization".

However, Mao Zedong's correct ideas were not only laughed at by most people but laughed at. Some people say that "the power is too concentrated on the front committee" and "the party manages too much". Narrowly asked, "does a gun have to ask the party?" "Does the groom do not have the rice to eat, also want the party to manage?" Xiao Ke recalled: "always debates these questions: should the party manage everything? Is it to manage everything, to lead everything, or to guide everything? And so on. Against this background, representatives of the Fourth Party of the Red Army convened on the Seventh National Congress of the Red Army. There was a lot of controversy. In the election, Mao Zedong was defeated by the Secretary of the front Committee. The seven resolutions also decided that "Comrade Mao Zedong will give serious warning" and "Comrade Zhu De will give a written warning".

The red Fourth Army broke up and the differences continued. After the meeting, Mao Zedong left the front committee to recuperate because of illness. In early August, Chen Yi went to Shanghai to report to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. During this period, the red Fourth Army did not have a political center, and the front Committee became a "democratic society". The members debated from their standpoints, positions and demands, often making decisions and making decisions. The erroneous ideology such as extreme democratization has seriously affected the work of the armed forces. In late September, the Eighth Party of the red Fourth Army was held in Shanghang. The conference lasted for 3 days in an unorganized state, trying to solve some differences in principle and did not achieve its goal. When the red army attacked Dongjiang, the front Committee was not aware of the change of enemy's situation. The two offensive against Meixian was attacked by powerful enemies, and casualties were severe. All kinds of chaos indicate that the core of the party's political leadership will not be solved quickly, and the future of the Red Army is worrying. It was under this background that the Ninth Party Congress of the red Fourth Army (Gutian Conference) was held in this context.

   Laying the foundation for establishing the party's centralized and unified leadership system: the historical contribution of the resolution of the Gutian Conference

In September 28, 1929, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China issued a letter of instructions to the front Committee of the Red Army ("letter from September"), and put forward a series of important opinions for the problems and disputes in the inner Party of the Red Army. The letter pointed out that we must strengthen the leadership of the party to the Red Army, and stress that "all the powers of the party are centralized in the guidance organs of the front Committee, which is correct and must not waver. The term "paternalism" can not be mechanically invoking to weaken the power of the steering organ to cover the extreme democratization. The letter called for "correcting all wrong tendencies", such as "abolition of ideas, separation of families, reduction of group orientation, extreme democratization, and the withdrawal of the Red Army from production." clearly, the front committee should immediately be responsible for recovering some mistakes: first, unite all comrades to fight against the enemy and achieve the tasks of the Red Army; second, the front Committee. We must strengthen the prestige of the guiding organs and make a resolute struggle with all the non proletarian consciousness; third, the front committee should correct Comrade Zhu Mao's mistakes and restore the belief of Comrade Zhu and Mao two among the masses; fourth, Comrade Zhu and Mao two will still remain in the work of the front Committee. After the meeting of the front Committee, Comrade Zhu and Mao two sincerely accepted the instructions of the Central Committee, Comrade Mao should remain Secretary of the front Committee, and make all the comrades of the Red Army understand and accept it. The letter of September provides a basis for the unity of the party and the ideological understanding of the Red Army.

According to the spirit of the central directive letter, in from December 28 to 29, 1929, the Ninth Party of the red Fourth Army was held at the Liao clan ancestral hall in Gutian village, Shanghang, Fujian. On this day, the wind was cold and snowy, and more than 120 delegates attended the meeting. Mao Zedong and Zhu De respectively made political reports and military reports. The meeting unanimously adopted the resolution of the Gutian conference, which was presided over by Mao Zedong, and elected a new Red Army fourth enemy Committee. Mao Zedong was elected secretary.

The full text of the resolution of the Gutian conference consists of eight parts: correcting the erroneous thinking within the party, organizing the party, inner-party education, the propaganda work of the Red Army, the political training of soldiers, abolishing the issue of corporal punishment, giving preferential treatment to wounded soldiers, and the relationship between the red army's military system and the political system. The most important part is the first part about correcting the erroneous ideas in the party. It creatively answered a series of fundamental and directional problems in the construction of the party and the army, and put forward a set of programmatic schemes for building a new type of people's army and how to build the party. From the perspective of the party's system construction, the party's absolute leadership over the Army established by the Gutian conference has far-reaching implications, laying the foundation for the comprehensive establishment of the party's centralized and unified leadership system.

The resolution of the Gutian conference severely criticized the erroneous tendencies such as "extreme democratization", "non organizational views" and "individualism". It pointed out that all kinds of non proletarian consciousness had greatly hindered the implementation of the correct line of the party. If we did not rectify it thoroughly, the task of China's overwhelming struggle against the Fourth Army could not be borne. The main source of all kinds of incorrect tendencies in the Fourth Army is naturally due to the fact that the largest part of the party's organizational foundation is built on peasants and other petty bourgeoisie elements. However, the party's guiding organs do not have a consistent and resolute struggle for these incorrect tendencies, and lack of education for the correct line of Party members, which is also a major reason for the existence and development of these incorrect tendencies. After the Red Army accepted the central instructions, the phenomenon of extreme democratization actually decreased, but in fact, the phenomenon of reduction was only a superficial reduction. It was never eliminated in the concept of general Party members, and the root of poison was deeply planted in the minds of many comrades. The simple military viewpoint is very deep in some comrades of the Red Army. It does not recognize that military is only one of the means to achieve the political task. It even says that "good military, political will be good, bad military and political will not be good". In fact, it is the leadership of the military as a political leader. In the organization, the political work organs are subordinate to the military organs, and the slogan of "command external" is put forward. If this line goes on, it will go to the danger of breaking away from the masses, monopolized by the army and leaving class status, such as the way the Kuomintang army has taken. There are many non party consciousness in the party. There are three kinds of them: first, the non minority is subordinate to the majority. If the proposal was rejected, it was very angry and did not sincerely implement the resolution of the party. Second, non organizational criticism. He did not understand the significance of the criticism within the party, but misused it to attack the individual, which not only destroyed the individual but also destroyed the party's organization. The third, first part is the specialization of Party members. In fact, if we are busy with the facts, we are unwilling to approach the masses and fear criticism from the masses. Therefore, we will not report to the general assembly or group meetings until the meeting. I do not know that the party and the Red Army are tools for carrying out the tasks of the class, and they are one of them. Some party members are serious in their individualism and do not consider themselves the main body of the struggle. They argue that the struggle is not related to themselves. They are responsible only for the Red Army officers or the party organs, rather than for the revolution. In order to solve these problems, the resolution of the Gutian conference has established the party's absolute leadership over the Red Army from various aspects.

First, the nature, purpose and tasks of the Red Army are stipulated. The Red Army is an armed group carrying out the political tasks of the executive class. It must not only fight simply, but also shoulder major tasks such as publicizing the masses, organizing the masses, arming the masses and helping the masses build their political power. Leaving the target of mass propaganda and organizing the armed regime, it completely lost the significance of fighting and fundamentally lost the significance of the Red Army's existence.

The two is to emphasize the establishment of branches again. It is emphasized that the construction of a branch and the construction of a group in each class is one of the important principles of the party organization in the Red Army.

The three is to implement the system of political commissar. All the orders of the military organs shall be countersigned by the political commissar. The party should pay active attention to and discuss the work of military affairs. All the work should be carried out after the discussion and resolution of the party and then through the mass line.

The four is to regulate the relationship between the Red Army's military organs and the political organs. Before the establishment of the high level political power, the Red Army's military organs and political organs carried out their work in parallel with the guidance of the front Committee. If there are issues concerning the significance of the whole army, such as the issuance of political platforms, the ranks of military and government organs shall be issued. Without the establishment of organs of political power, the Red Army Political Department took the place of local authorities. Mass work such as propaganda, organization of the masses, construction of political power, and confiscation of supervision and punishment such as punishment, donation, examination, fundraising, and financial difficulties are all functions of the Ministry of political affairs before the establishment of local organs. To help local armed forces and launch, the Red Army's fundraising command and the decision and expenditure of political work expenses belong to the Ministry of political affairs.

Five, it is proposed to strengthen the ideological and political education of the Red Army so as to make the party members' ideology and inner party life politicized and scientific. The party members of education use Marx's method to make political analysis and estimate the class power in order to replace the analysis and estimation of the idealistic method. Improve the political level within the party and eliminate the theoretical roots of the purely military concept. In the general Party members, we should strengthen the political significance education of Party organization construction, and fundamentally eliminate all irresponsible criticism to the masses with bad influence. The minority should be subordinate to the majority. The minority should be supported by the majority of resolutions before the first meeting of the party and before the next meeting is open. In addition to further discussion at the next meeting, there should be no objection to action.

Marked by the resolution of the Gutian conference, the Red Army thoroughly drew the line between the old army and the old army, and established the "Army spirit" of the people's army, which is "absolute leadership by the party to the army", and made it theorized, institutionalized and standardized. The successful convening of the Gutian conference is a direct reflection of the red Fourth Army Party organization's "safeguarding the authority and centralized and unified leadership of the Party Central Committee". Before the meeting, the debate on "who leads and listens to commanding" is hard to solve. After the Central Committee's "letter of September" has made clear opinions, the party organizations at all levels of the Red Army have consciously subordinated and supported the central directives and integrated their thoughts and actions into the spirit of the Central Committee. Only then did the Gutian conference and the Gutian conference resolutions come into being. Firmly upholding the authority and centralized leadership of the Party Central Committee requires high ideological consciousness and political consciousness of the whole party, and also requires sound and sound institutional guarantee. The party's absolute leadership over the Army established in the resolution of the Gutian conference provides ideological resources for the establishment of a centralized and unified leadership system for all work, and has accumulated valuable experience and laid a solid political foundation.

   Let the system fall to the ground effectively: the resolution of the Gutian conference has drawn up a series of specific disciplines and rules.

The important principles such as "ideological building up", "political building up" and "absolute leadership of the party to the army" established by the Gutian conference should be able to fall into the disciplines and rules strictly adhered to by all the party organizations and the Red Army. There must be more specific and detailed implementation rules. In this regard, the resolution of the Gutian conference is a good example of the construction of the system. For example, in developing party members, there are 5 specific conditions: 1., there is no erroneous concept (including class consciousness) in political concept. 2. faithfulness. 3. have the spirit of sacrifice and be able to work actively. 4. no notion of making a fortune. 5. do not eat opium and do not gamble.

There are 7 provisions in strengthening the concept of Party member organization and enhancing the enthusiasm of Party members to participate in the branch office: 1., the conference should be politicized and practical. 2., we should remind comrades of the importance of the conference, especially the new party members and non active party members. 3. resolution should not be made lightly. The 10% resolution must be resolutely implemented. 4. the higher authorities should respond quickly to the problems of the lower level organs and not delay them too long. 5. the responsible person should prepare the agenda in advance, the agenda should be specific, and the content and environment of the problem should be investigated clearly. First, think about how to solve the problem. 6. the chairman should adopt very good techniques for guiding meetings, and guide the trend of discussion among the masses to a certain problem. However, the development beyond the point of importance should not only stop him from taking a serious view, but also cherish the key points of this development and introduce a new topic to everyone so that the conference will be interested and the problem can be truly solved. At the same time, the conference can really realize the meaning of education. 7. abolish the order of the feudal assembly. If the Communist Party's assembly reflects the spirit of the proletariat's active and lively spirit, make these order.

In strengthening the education of Party members, 18 specific methods were put forward: 1. party newspapers; 2. political briefs; 3., preparation of educational brochures; 4. training classes; 5. organized allocation of books; 6. pairs of non party members reading newspapers; 7. individual conversations; 8. criticisms; 9. group meetings; 10. branches general meetings; 9. branch committees and group meetings; and the columns of the leaders for the above unit activists. ; 13. the general assembly of the whole army and the above activists; the 14. column is the meeting of the party members; the 15. column is the joint meeting of the book, propaganda and group at all levels; 16. the joint meeting of the whole army detachment, the 17. political seminar; and 18., the appropriate allocation of Party members to participate in the actual work.

There are 10 Rules for how a political commissar can take a good political lesson: 1. heuristic (abolition type); 2. from near to far; 3. from shallow to deep; 4. speaking and secularizing (new terms to be vulgar); 5. speaking to understand; 6. speaking with interest; 7. speaking with posture; 8. after reviewing the previous concept; 9. to outline; 10. cadre class should use discussion.

There are 6 stipulates in establishing the party's democratic centralism and correcting non organizational Views: 1., the leading organs of the party must have the correct guiding line, and when they are in trouble, they should take measures to establish the center of leadership. 2. the higher authorities should understand the situation of the lower level organs and the living conditions of the masses, thus becoming the objective basis for correct guidance. The 3. Party organs at all levels should not be too careless in solving problems, and 10% resolutions must be resolutely implemented. 4. the resolutions of the higher authorities must be transmitted quickly to the lower level organs and Party members. The 5. Party's lower level organs and Party members' instructions to the higher authorities must be discussed in detail, so as to fully understand the meaning of the instructions and decide on their execution methods. 6. when the meeting is to make the people present at the meeting try to express their opinions, there is a controversial issue. We should understand the right and wrong, do not reconcile the perfunctory, do not solve it at one time, and reconsider the two time (without interfering with the work), so as to get clear conclusions.

In publicizing the masses and organizing the masses, 8 specific provisions are stipulated: 1., issue a specific political platform, known as the red army political platform. 2. propaganda should suit the masses' struggle mood. In addition to the general publication of the riot slogans, there should be slogans suitable for people's daily life with low emotional and emotional struggles, so as to mobilize daily struggles to link those riot slogans. 3. the urban poor (middle and small businessmen and students) are a considerable force in the process of the civil rights revolution. Ignoring the struggle for this power, they give the power to the gentry bourgeoisie. In the future, small and medium-sized businessmen and students in cities should have in-depth publicity work to get them. 4. women account for half of the population. The economic status of the working women and their special oppression situation not only prove women's urgent need for the revolution, but also determine the victory or defeat of the revolution. After that, we should have a realistic slogan for women and make general publicity. 5. the youth and the young people account for more than thirty percent of the population. They are the most courageous and resolute in the struggle. Therefore, advocacy for young people is an important task in the publicity task. 6. if China's vast masses of vagrants stand on the revolutionary class, they will become tools of revolution. If they stand on the reactionary classes, they will become tools of counter revolution. Therefore, it is one of the party's propaganda tasks to seize the masses of the vagrants from the influence of the reactionary classes. In carrying out publicity work, we should pay attention to the different life and nature of the vagrants of each part and propagate them separately. 7. the destruction of the armed forces of the landlord class and the struggle of the masses are one of the conditions for the victory of the agrarian revolution in the countryside. 8., there should be slogans and inspiring slogans suitable for that place. There are different propaganda and advocacy slogans according to different time (such as autumn harvest and year, Chiang Kai Shek war and Wang Chiang war).

The resolution of the Gutian conference not only answered and solved a series of major principles of building the party and army, but also made the principles concrete, detailed and standardized. There are both directions and paths. This is an important feature of the resolution of the Gutian conference.

There is a provision in the resolution of the Gutian conference: "10% resolutions must be resolutely implemented", which is also a necessary condition for ensuring the party's system to take root. The implementation of the resolutions of the Gutian conference can be carried out strictly in the Fourth Army of the Red Army. It is determined to implement the "resolute implementation". After the adoption of the resolution, the Red Army forces seize all the gaps that can be utilized, and convey the spirit of the conference to different levels. Party organizations at all levels (from column Party committee to Party branch of the company) examine their problems one by one in accordance with the resolution, and carry out correct Comrade style criticism. Through hard work, the political consciousness of cadres and soldiers has been remarkably improved. The whole army has unfolded ideas, gathered power, corrected errors and presented a new atmosphere.

On the seventh day after the Gutian meeting in January 5, 1930, Mao Zedong wrote a long letter of more than 7000 characters in a humble cottage in Gutian village, which was later published in public, "a spark can start a prairie fire". In the letter, Mao Zedong put forward the correct path of the Chinese Revolution: encircling the cities in the countryside, armed to seize power, and depicting the future of the Chinese revolution with poetic statements: "it is a ship that has seen the mast's tip in the distance from the coast. It is a sunrise in the east from the top of the mountain. In the middle of a mature baby. "

On the eighth day after the end of the Gutian conference in January 6, 1930, Mao Zedong pointed out in his report to the Central Committee: "the resolutions of the general assembly and the instructions of the central government are to overcome all kinds of tendencies and implement them one by one in theory. This month's time is easy, and the Red Army is in the face of no surprising struggle in the political situation, but it has laid the foundation for the struggle in the future. This is the foundation of the political significance and historical status of the Gutian conference. The Gutian conference attached importance to the construction of the system and solved a series of fundamental problems in the construction of the inner party and the army of the Red Army. It also provided a historical model and practical inspiration for us to study and implement the spirit of the party in the fourth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee.

(author: Director of the Seventh Research Department of the party history and Literature Research Institute of the CPC Central Committee)

Author: Wang Junwei       Editor: Administrator
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