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Experience and Enlightenment of official management in China's history

Release time: 2020-01-14 source: Learning times

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Bureaucracy is related to political gains and losses, popular support and the rise and fall of dynasties. During the long historical process, the Chinese government has accumulated rich ideological and practical experience as an important means of governing the country.

   The main experience of bureaucracy in China's history

First, bureaucracy plays a central role in national politics. Throughout the history of our country, the strong nation, clear politics, prosperous society and stable people's hearts are all inseparable from the strict rule of officials. Before the unification, the officials of Qin Dynasty "entered the public gate from their own door; they had no private affairs because of the public gate, and had no private affairs." Liu Xiu, the emperor of Guang Wu, was "diligent in official administration", and the two thousand senior officials of the "high school who had a slight fiber had to be punished", which ensured the stability of the political situation in the early years of the Eastern Han Dynasty. Tang Taizong wrote the name of governor and governor Shi on the screen. "Sitting and lying and watching", all deeds of good and evil are recorded, which is a good example of his strict administration of officials and the creation of Zhenguan's rule. Since ancient times there was no reason for chaos and rule by the state.

Second, attaching importance to grass-roots training and attaching importance to grass-roots practical ability training. In the Han Dynasty, under the system of imperial examination, most of them had been promoted to be honest and upright. According to statistics, they are mainly officials of all levels of officers, and the highest rank does not exceed the rank of county magistrates. In the Tang Dynasty, the grass-roots units were especially employed. The official posts under the imperial examination system in the Tang Dynasty were not generally high, but the number of imperial examinations was only nine, but the proportion of senior officials such as prime minister in the middle and late Tang Dynasty gradually increased, indicating that these prime ministers were generally promoted from the grassroots level. In our history, the "trial officer" system was also implemented. "Try to be an officer and a ruler." In the Han Dynasty, the first official should be tried for a year, and those who are qualified will be "genuine". In the Tang Dynasty, the Ministry of justice inspects the imperial examination officials by body, speech, book and sentence, in order to ensure that they have the necessary administrative ability.

Third, eliminate redundant officials. In the history of our country, the system of official establishment was established, and the number of officials was set. But in the actual operation process, bureaucratic expansion and redundant officials are common phenomena. Therefore, a successful experience in rectifying bureaucracy in our history is to eliminate redundant officials. Emperor Wu of Guang Dynasty "reduced official posts and saved ten provinces." Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty "to save time and be small" is an important measure for social stability in Eastern Han Dynasty and early Sui Dynasty. In the Tang Dynasty, the monarch and Minister discussed and dealt with redundant officials many times. Tang Taizong said, "the only reason for this is the trial. "We only need to be assigned to the provincial officials," he added. Tang Xuanzong aimed at the current situation of redundant officials in the period of Wu Zetian and Tang Zhongzong, "ten times to nine". The emergence of the so-called "flourishing age" in Zhenguan, Kaiyuan and Tianbao is not related to this. Song Dynasty Ou Yangxiu, Fan Zhongyan, Hong Mai, Su Zhe and others also made many comments on the redundant officials in the Song Dynasty, but they failed to implement them in the end. Redundant officials and redundant personnel were the main reasons for the formation of poverty and weakness in the Song Dynasty.

   Enlightenment from the administration of officials in China's history

First, we must define the basic principles of selecting and employing people. It is always one of the political core of the dynasty to choose what kind of person to choose. The basic principles of selecting and employing people in China's history have gone through a long period of exploration. After the mid Han Dynasty, the basic principles of selecting the officials and employing Confucianism as the basic principles have been established for a long time. Although the basic system design of bureaucracy in different dynasties has changed, it basically revolves around this principle. At the same time, the cultivation of social fashion, teaching materials for students, examination questions for examinees, criteria for selection and assessment of officials, formulation of rural regulations, family advocacy and family regulations, and themes of literature and art are closely integrated with Confucianism. In order to achieve a high degree of unity and mutual recognition of the employing principle and social thought. Of course, the past dynasties did not exclude legalist thought of employment.

Second, we must safeguard the central leadership in selecting and employing people. History has proved again and again that the dominant power of central election and appointment must not be weakened or lost. In the late Eastern Han Dynasty, the imperial power was weakened, and the selection and employment of the dynasty was greatly disturbed by the eunuchs. Many people chose to use human rights to be monopolized by great surnames. This was the political reason for the collapse of the Eastern Han regime. As a tool for the nobles to monopolize their political status, the nine commodities centralization system was the fundamental factor for the imperial power in the Wei, Jin, southern and Northern Dynasties, the centralization of power and the corruption of officials. In the heyday of the great unification of our country, the dominant power of selecting and employing people must be firmly grasped in the hands of the Central Committee. In the history of our country, people's minds are lax, the political power is unstable and the social contradictions are outstanding. To maintain the leading role of the central election and appointment, we must also strengthen supervision and supervision over the selection and appointment of personnel. We must also strengthen the system of selecting and employing people. Of course, safeguarding the central government's right to choose and employ persons is not a matter of centrallocating all the powers to the central government. It is also a historical experience to divide the responsibilities between the central and local governments, government affairs and officials, and to choose and use human rights.

Third, we must appoint talents, recruit talents and keep pace with the times. This is the eternal rule of expanding political power, promoting social equity and ensuring political clarity. First, we should extend our talents to all corners of the country. The main purpose of the selection of officials system in China's history is to select talents widely needed by the state through the system, and the two is to know others well and make good use of others. The concrete way of selecting and employing people has no invariable rule. With the changes of historical conditions and changes in specific affairs, the requirements for talents are different. It is a necessary way to appoint people to be worthy of the merit of "moving with time" and "adjusting their official ranks" in a timely manner. The three is to appoint and win the fittest. In the Tang Dynasty, Wei Zheng said, "knowing what is human is difficult since ancient times." Tang Taizong said, "to choose the world is the only thing for the world. Appoint and instruct each one to do his best." In the history of our country, the mechanism of appointing and winning the fittest is to establish a strict and rigorous examination system by following the name and the responsibility.

Fourth, we must use the system and be good at employing people. History has accumulated a lot of successful experience that "peace is the foundation, but only people". The first is examination personnel. The employing of examination is a relatively objective and fair way of employing people. There are many factors in the examination of the imperial examination system, such as the strategy and strategy of the Han Dynasty. After the emergence of the imperial examination system, people should be judged by their achievements. When they choose, they will have to test again. The intention is to select the best talents. However, in the history of our country, not only the candidates for examination, but also the people who recommended, the officials and the people with various specialized skills, the state also widely recruited them, and absorbed them into the bureaucracy, expanding the scope of employment, maintaining the political balance, and supplemented the shortage of qualified personnel. The two is to assess personnel. "Because of the appointment of officials, according to the name and responsibility." For officials who have already entered the office, it is very important to adopt the personnel evaluation mechanism that is based on the name, the duty and the survival of the fittest. In the history of our country, the successful experience of assessing personnel is highly valued, and the content is clear, the classification of assessment objects is closely related, and the assessment results are closely combined with rewards and punishments. The three is classification. It is the basic principle of employing people that "gentlemen use people like machines and take advantage of each other's strengths". It is also a good way to ensure a suitable job and suitable personnel. The Han Dynasty paid equal attention to both humane and Confucian scholars. Wen Li is good at "breaking up the rigid and irritated", while Confucian scholars are "longer than rescuing". The former "wins by deeds, with loyalty", while the latter "takes advantage of merit, but does not work well". In the past dynasties, candidates were divided into many subjects, with the aim of selecting different talents. In the past dynasties, the local counties and counties were divided into two types: "Ping" and "drama". Officials and officials in different dynasties were divided into different ranks. Officials are administrative officials, officials are officials, officials need to avoid native places, and local officials are employed by local officials. These are the concrete embodiment of being good at employing people. Four, virtue is the best. Officials should not be incompetent, but Germany should not be absent. Officials in the past dynasties require officials to take people as the foundation, and the people of Dehua, and ask officials to emphasize their virtues, and to educate and assess officials' morals by people oriented, thrifty, honest, filial piety, honesty, public and private education, become the primary criterion for selecting officials.

Fifth, we must strictly punish officials. "Officials are not cheap but they are weak in governance." Zhang Juzheng said, "we must not be anxious to settle the people's livelihood in the way of reasoning, but only in nuclear governance." Historical experience has repeatedly proved that rule of government must be the first rule. Without good administration, no good policy or system can be implemented. The resurgence of China's history is brought about by the trend of the times and the strict rule of officials. The history of China's chaos is closely related to the abolished bureaucracy.

   Historical reference for strengthening cadre team building and managing cadres strictly in New Era

"In order to control chaos, it should be a local official". Different ages and different tasks, but historical experience is still worthy of attention and reference.

Scientifically and effectively comprehend the standard of employing talents with both ability and integrity and morality. Having both ability and integrity and virtue first is the valuable experience of the Chinese nation accumulated over thousands of years and has its immortal value. We must scientifically and effectively understand the policy of employing talents with both ability and integrity and morality first.

The virtue of the new era is to adhere to Xi Jinping's new socialist ideology with Chinese characteristics, listen to the party's words, follow the party's steps, be loyal, clean and take responsibility. The only thing in the new era is to serve the people, to take the people as the center, to have a strong vision, to open up and forge ahead. At present, to improve the system of selecting and appointing talents with both ability and integrity and morality, we must pay attention to the classification of selected cadres and separate government affairs from affairs. Government cadres should pay special attention to training grass-roots experience and practical experience. From practice, we should employ people and employ people from the grassroots. We should encourage cadres to take the responsibility, dare to act, explore bravely, go deep into the grass-roots units, and go deep into the masses, so that outstanding cadres will stand out like Mao Su and dare to "chisel" like Zhang Qian.

Improve the cadre assessment system. There are still many problems to be improved in the assessment of cadres today. A small number of local and departmental examinations are heavy in form and light in substance. No outstanding cadres can be assessed, nor can cadres be assessed for nonfeasance. Assessment methods and examination contents, regardless of duty level, distinction between the right and the subordinate, and different posts, are a standard and a set of methods. The role of assessment. At present, it is a way to strengthen the assessment mechanism, clarify the assessment institutions, further increase and refine the examination contents, further open and transparent examination results, and carry out classified assessment. Of course, we should standardize the examination and avoid checking too many doors and too many excesses.

Temper justice with mercy and reward and punishment are distinct. No rules, no Cheng Fangyuan. However, we should proceed from the actual results and pay attention to temper justice with mercy and play a clear role in reward and punishment. The ancients said, "the economy is strong and the economy is strong." Of course, this "broad" is not lax, not to mention law, but to improve the fault-tolerant and error correction mechanism in the management of cadres. The ancients said, "to be a public official must not be a crime, but a private crime can not be". It means that officials should not be afraid of accidents and do nothing but seek peace. Therefore, the errors, errors and subjective crimes in the work of cadres should be differentiated from the system. "Do not forget one's good by one evil, do not Concealer it with a slight flaw"; distinguish between public and private matters, and, more simply, public opinion. Accountability should be serious, but not harsh. Responsibility should be serious, but prudent, so that cadres can have the energy, confidence and boldness to carry out their work. The legitimate rights and interests of cadres should also be protected so that their sense of mission, honor and sense of belonging are directly proportional to their sense of acquisition. At the same time, we should improve the mechanism of normalization. Because of assessment or fault, it is the norm of ancient Chinese officials to build up their own achievements. In addition to major crimes, the officials who have made mistakes also give the opportunity to correct mistakes and give full play to their abilities. These are worthy of our study. We should improve the system of rewards and punishments. "State affairs, only reward and punishment. Those who reward their work, those who do not work will retreat themselves; they shall be punished for their crimes, and those for the evil will be afraid of them. The supervision and management of cadres should not only use punishment but also encourage and protect. It is the experience left by history that we should not lose the law, be strict with others, be strict with each other, and strive for progress steadily.

We should actively train and select excellent young cadres. Young cadres are the future of socialism with Chinese characteristics. At present, the number of young cadres is not enough, and the selection, cultivation, management and use of young cadres are still not perfect. We should widen the training channels for young cadres, optimize the professional structure of young cadres, and make different approaches to the management and use of young cadres in different fields. We should speed up their pace of development, break the ranks of seniority, and use excellent young cadres, and let them practice more and more, as Xi Jinping pointed out by general secretary.

(the writer is director and researcher of the Institute of ancient history, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences)

Author: Bu Xianqun       Editor: Administrator
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