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The civilization view and civilized attitude of Chinese civilization

Release time: 2020-01-14 source: Red flag manuscript 2020/1

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In history, Chinese civilization has had extensive exchanges with other Asian civilizations, which has promoted the colorful development of Chinese civilization and other Asian civilizations. The smooth communication of civilization depends on certain world outlook and values. The rich exchange of Chinese civilization with other Asian civilizations is based on the values and world outlook of Chinese civilization, especially the concept of "harmony but difference".

Mandarin and Zheng recorded the words of Shi Bo at the end of the Western Zhou Dynasty. The same is the repetition of unity, and the concord of diversity. This idea holds that the coordination and harmonization of different things is the root of things, and the simple repetition of the same things can not be generated. In this sense, the existence of diversity is the premise of generating new things, such as the five elements are the five most basic elements or materials, and can be generated by the integration of five different elements or materials, and single elements can not be generated. The idea of advocating "harmony" and opposing "Tong" was later generalized by Confucius as the principle of "harmony but difference". This kind of thought is clear against unity, and holds that diversity is the foundation of prosperity and development. It emphasizes that the coordination, coordination and combination of multiple elements are far superior to unity. This is a true Chinese wisdom, and it is also a value ideal and attitude.

Zuo Zhuan recorded the thought of "harmony" by Yan Ying, a wise man in the late spring and Autumn period. If the piano is single, who can listen to it? The same goes for it. " It is also believed that the harmony and complementarity of different things can meet the needs of people's social and cultural practice. The existence of diversity, difference and otherness is the prerequisite for the growth of things, and the harmonization of diversity is the fundamental condition of life. This dialectical thinking, which emphasizes diversity, has been developed before Confucius. After the conclusion of Confucius, it has become the inherent ideological resource of Chinese philosophy, and is widely used in political, social, cultural and other fields. The concept of "harmony but difference" provides the basis for the world outlook for Chinese civilization's attitude towards civilization exchange and civilization diversity.

"Harmony" is not only the concord of diversity, but also its general harmony or universal harmony, which began to develop in the early days of Chinese civilization. The Shang Shu Shun Dian records that Emperor Shun's life music officials achieve "eight tone harmonics", "no one takes advantage of others" and "harmony between gods and human beings" through poetry and music. This shows that the ancients attached great importance to the harmonious role of music, and hoped that the harmony of songs could make people reach a harmonious relationship with God. People in the spring and Autumn Period inherited this idea, and advocated that "harmony" should be extended beyond the harmony of all kinds of music, that is to say, "harmony with God" reflects the early yearning for harmony in the universe. In ancient times, Chinese people repeatedly used the harmony of vocal music to describe the harmony between various things in the world, thus becoming a universal pursuit of culture. Another example is Zuo Zhuan, Xiang Gong, who carried the Jin Dynasty Hou in eleven. He said, "the children and the people are all in China. In the eight years, the nine princes, such as happiness and harmony, have no discord." Chinese ancient people regard music harmony and harmony as a model to deal with the relationship between human beings, people and society, ethnic groups and ethnic groups, people and the world. The pursuit of "harmony" has become the universal ideal of Chinese culture and thought, and has shaped the way of thinking, value orientation and aesthetic pursuit of Chinese civilization.

The pursuit of perpetual harmony as a way of treating external ethnic groups has a long history in Chinese civilization. "Shang Shu Yao Dian" put forward: "Cumming Jung De, to kiss nine tribes. The nine nationalities are harmonious and peaceful. The people know clearly that they are united. Since then, "concord and ten thousand states" has become a model of Chinese civilization and world outlook. There are also similar theories about "harmony with the state, unification of officials and harmony of the whole people". Confucius has long used "harmony" as the principle of communication in the external world. He said, "to be gentle and distant, to set our king" is to be peaceful and harmonious. The book of Zhouyi Qian Gua says: "the first thing to come out of the world is Xianning." This is also consistent with the thought of Concord and WAN bang. A peaceful coexistence world is a lasting ideal of Chinese civilization for thousands of years.

Zhouyi advocates "Baohe Taihe". Taihe is a permanent harmony, indicating that harmony is indeed the core value of Chinese civilization. This thought also had an important influence on Confucius. Confucius continued to attach importance to music in Western Zhou culture. He also advocated the function of music in "harmony", and thought that the spirit of harmony embodied in music can promote the practice of ritual and the function of supplemental courtesy. The book of rites Yue Ji says, "happy people, the harmony of heaven and earth, the ritual, the order of heaven and earth. They are all different from things. This clearly shows that in Confucian view, human harmony basically comes from the harmony of heaven and earth, that is, the harmony of nature. Harmony is the generative principle of all things. Without harmony, there is no universal metaplasia. The realization of harmony has profound cosmological roots. The book of rites, the doctrine of the mean, puts forward: "the Chinese and the world are also great. In the middle of the world, the universe is fertile. The middle is the balance principle of the middle way, and is the principle of harmony. Balance and harmony not only have the meaning of mankind, but also the universal law of the universe. People must be consistent with the universe and pursue the principle of balance and harmony. The result will not only be the prosperity of human society, but also promote the development and order of the universe.

After the Han and Wei dynasties, the communication between India civilization and Chinese civilization was mainly through the introduction of Buddhism. After the Tang Dynasty, Zoroastrianism, Neo Confucianism and Islam were introduced into China, which further promoted the exchange of different civilizations in Asia. The spread of Buddhism from the east of India has made Chinese culture not only absorb Buddhist culture, but also clearly realize that there are other advanced civilizations beyond Chinese civilization. This has enabled the Chinese to open up a pluralistic vision of civilization, and the exchange between Chinese civilization and India civilization has always been peaceful. Because of the introduction and development of Buddhism, most dynasties in ancient China supported the "Three Religions" of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. In later China's ideological circles, the slogan of "three religions combined with one" was also popular, suggesting that different religions could be fused with each other, so that religious wars could not happen between China and the outside world. Such a tradition of different civilizations and multi religious integration is the cultural practice of "harmony but difference" in ancient China. It is also an important resource for Chinese civilization to deal with religious culture at least since the Tang Dynasty. All these indicate that the harmony pursued by Chinese civilization is a harmonious view based on the coexistence of diversity and complementarity.

The tolerance of Chinese civilization to other civilizations is supported by Confucius's benevolence. Confucius said, "benevolence, man." This is to say that Confucianism emphasizes the love and care for others. "Benevolence, human being" is the ethics of the other priority, especially in two aspects: "harmony but difference" and "good for others". "Harmony but difference" is Confucius's words, refers to tolerance differences, respect differences, pay attention to diversity. And "to be good to others" is Meng Zi's words, including others who are different from themselves, who are friendly and friendly. These two points are also good principles for dealing with civilized relations. Unfortunately, there are still some people in the world who hold a narrow concept of "opposing the enemy", insist on a single self centred, regard the others who are different from themselves as enemies, and try to change or even destroy each other by all means and even by force. What they call "alien" means not only the nation, the country, but also the civilization. This is neither consistent with the world trend of civilization development, nor is it contrary to the universal value of civilization exchange.

In recent years, the voice of anti globalization has become increasingly diffuse. The construction of the fate community of the whole world or region needs urgent and heavy responsibilities. Faced with these problems, we believe that it is impossible to solve only by relying on the Western Modernity Value and the civilization outlook of the Western civilization. We must open up all kinds of exploration, including rediscovering the values and world outlook of Asian civilization, giving play to the concept of "harmony but difference" and the attitude of "being good to others" in order to improve the unsatisfactory world today.

(author: Dean and professor of Sinology Research Institute, Tsinghua University)

Author: Chen Lai       Editor: Administrator
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