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The development of people's livelihood highlights China's system and governance advantages

Release time: 2020-01-14 source: Seeking truth net

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Abstract: China will become the first "developing country without" absolute poverty "to achieve the goal of sustainable development of the United Nations. This is a universally acknowledged miracle of people's livelihood. The whole nation is moving from hunger to cold to a better life. The process of China's people's livelihood development has made the best interpretation of the superiority of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics and the state governance system, and has also revealed to the world why the Chinese people wholeheartedly support the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party and highly recognize the socialist system with Chinese characteristics. We must uphold and improve the livelihood security system for urban and rural areas, clarify the goal orientation and problem orientation, and constantly promote the development of people's livelihood with positive, rational and sustainable efforts, and constantly satisfy the people's sense of acquisition, happiness and safety.

To measure the pros and cons of the state system and the national governance system, people's livelihood is undoubtedly the core criterion that can reach consensus, resonate and be universally applicable. Because the quality of the people's livelihood determines the support of the people and the people's heart decides the fate of the country. This is the universal law of the development process of human society. In the fourth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee, the party fully expounded the strong vitality and great superiority of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics and the state governance system, and issued a political declaration with full confidence. This confidence is also reflected in the great achievements and the miracle of the people's livelihood, such as poverty reduction and national education.

   First, the miracle of people's livelihood is the best interpretation of China's system and governance system.

The fact of China's history proves the internal relationship between people's livelihood and people's heart and its importance to the choice of state power and the development of the country. The Communist Party of China is a political party for the happiness of the people. Since the founding of new China over the past 70 years, the whole nation has gone from hunger to cold to a better life. The process of people's livelihood development has made the best interpretation of the superiority of the state system and governance system, mainly including the following aspects.

First, the people's living standards have been greatly improved and made outstanding contributions to the world's poverty reduction. At the time of the founding of new China, the incidence of absolute poverty in China was more than 80%. In the past 70 years, the per capita disposable income of the residents increased by 6.1% in real terms, and the Engel coefficient decreased from 80% to 28.4%. Most of the urban and rural residents lived an increasingly prosperous life. Especially in the past 40 years, more than 800 million of the population was lifted out of poverty, and the contribution rate to the global poverty reduction reached 70%, and the absolute poverty and regional poverty were coming soon. China is going to be the first developing country to achieve the goal of sustainable development of the United Nations, which is universally acknowledged as a miracle of people's livelihood.

Two, the development of national education has led the illiterate country to the popularization of higher education. The illiteracy rate dropped from 80% to 5% in the early days of the founding of the people's Republic of China. The gross enrollment rate of higher education increased from almost zero to 48.1%, and it was moving from popularization to popularization. The average education level of the working age population increased significantly, and the average education age of the new labor force reached 13.3 years in 2017. These indicators exceeded the average level of the middle and high income countries.

Three, the development of medical and health not only brought the "sick man of East Asia" into history, but also walked quickly to health and longevity. Life expectancy increased from 35 to 77, infant mortality dropped from 200 to 6.1, and maternal mortality dropped from 150/10 to 18.3/10.

Four, the development of labor and employment has made the "traditional farmers everywhere" move towards an increasingly decent job. The total employment increased from 180 million to 780 million, of which 430 million in urban employment increased by 27.3 times; the number of statutory holidays and paid leave increased from 59 days to 120 days, and the labor remuneration continued to rise.

Five is social security from scratch, from the main development of urban residents to cover the whole nation. The comprehensive social assistance system has been saved. The old age insurance has covered all the elderly. Medical insurance has covered more than 97% of the population. Social security has become the basic way and system guarantee for the whole nation to share the achievements of the national development, and has made outstanding contributions to the development of the global social security.

Six, the living conditions are from displacement, from generation to generation to habitation and residence. The per capita housing area of urban residents increased from 4.5 square meters to more than 39 square meters, which surpassed the average level of developed countries. Rural residents had their own homestead, with a per capita living area exceeding that of cities and towns, and the living environment improved rapidly. In particular, China's housing ownership rate was as high as 95%, which is unique in the world today.

Seven, there are great changes in travel traffic. 70 years ago, the traffic was basically on the move. Rural residents, especially mountain residents, were almost isolated from generation to generation. Nowadays, the convenience of Chinese transportation has shocked the world. The national expressway has a mileage of over 140 thousand kilometres, ranking first in the world; the mileage of the high-speed rail network is 29 thousand km, which exceeds 2/3 of the total world high-speed rail mileage; the total number of domestic routes is 3420, and the annual passenger traffic volume exceeds 600 million passengers. Do not reach 41 and 22.3.

Eight, the spiritual and cultural life of the people is moving from poor to colorful. Reading from the patent of a very small number of people in the total population to the national reading, the increasing variety of reading materials, the popularity of digital reading, the goal of reading has also been sublimated from entertainment and leisure to self value promotion; public cultural services have gone from blank to forming a sound network covering urban and rural areas, and the gap between urban and rural residents' spiritual and cultural life has obviously narrowed, and people's spiritual and cultural life has been greatly reduced. The pursuit of all-round upgrading requires not only the simultaneous sharing of the fruits of contemporary world civilization, but also the creation of an increasingly rich spiritual and cultural life in an unprecedented manner.

The nine is the continuous progress of democracy and rule of law. People's participation in national governance and social governance is getting wider and wider. The people's Congress system and grass-roots democracy system are becoming more and more sound. The process of opening government information and legislating democratization is speeding up, the main position of the people has been consolidated, the right to know and the right to participate have been expanded continuously, and the socialist legal system with Chinese characteristics is becoming more and more sound, and since the eighteen party has been clearly established. Comprehensively promoting the rule of law, people's appeal for judicial justice is becoming a reality. The development of people's livelihood in the new era is not only a matter of increasing material wealth and spiritual and cultural living standards, but also a significant improvement in democratic rights, social justice and judicial justice.

The great achievement of China's people's livelihood development was created under the condition of national poverty and blankness. It was created by a large population with a population of about 19% of the world's total population. It was constantly upgraded under the conditions of the general people's living standards and quality of life continued to improve continuously. This miracle serves as a socialist system and country with Chinese characteristics. The best interpretation of the superiority of the governance system has also revealed to the world why the Chinese people wholeheartedly support the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party and highly recognize the socialist system with Chinese characteristics.

   Two, China's system and governance system has significant advantages to ensure the development of people's livelihood.

The great success of China's people's livelihood development proves the obvious advantages of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics and the state governance system.

The strong political guarantee of the Communist Party of China has laid a solid foundation for the country's long-term stability and stability. Since the founding of the People's Republic of China in October 1949, the Chinese Communist Party, as the ruling party, has closely united the people of all nationalities in the country with a firm will and unmatched organizational cohesion. It has completely ended the chaotic situation of scattered and self governed affairs at that time. The people of the whole country had the backbone of the leadership of the Communist Party of China, and the political situation remained stable and the society remained secure. Surely, this situation of long-term stability provides a strong political guarantee for the continuous improvement of people's livelihood.

The pursuit of common prosperity in the socialist system provides basic guidance for the whole nation to share the fruits of national development. After the reform and opening up, the internal driving force of the people's struggle has been stimulated, and the sustained and rapid growth of the national economy and the rapid accumulation of social wealth have laid an increasingly substantial material foundation for the continuous improvement of people's livelihood. China has always adhered to the socialist essence of pursuing common prosperity, and constantly adjusted the arrangement of people's livelihood security system with the times, so that the achievements of national development can be more and more equitable to all the people. For example, social security is aimed at covering the whole nation. Employment is aimed at full employment and high-quality employment. Education ensures universal benefits and universal education from compulsory education to higher education. The gradual realization of these goals can only be achieved by persisting in the socialist system.

The national governance system with Chinese characteristics provides a long-term and effective guarantee for the development of people's livelihood. On the one hand, after the founding of new China, loose territory became a chess game of the whole country. Under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, the government could concentrate its efforts on major events. People's livelihood security system under the planned system emphasizes national unity. Education, employment, income distribution, social security, health and health policies have been implemented by the central government as a whole, and government decrees have been integrated. After the reform and opening up, the strategy of "bottom up" has been adopted. Its target setting, policy direction and major institutional arrangements are still central decisions and carried out nationwide. The unified action of the whole country and the national governance system that concentrates on major events has prevented the people's livelihood security system from being distorted by local self-determination in practice. This is the secret of developing a country with a large population, unbalanced regional development and multi-ethnic structure in order to achieve the goal of sharing the achievements of the whole nation and synchronizing the well-off society in an all-round way. Natural disasters, effective solutions to the poverty problem in deep poverty areas, the rapid completion of the social security network covering the whole people, and the mystery of achieving full employment and popularizing national education. On the other hand, China's national governance system also highlights the coherent development plan and the effective implementation system of a generation from generation to generation. Shortly after the founding of new China, the construction of a modern country has become a national strategic goal. Great achievements have been made in the "15 plan" to the "55 plan". After the reform and opening up, the state further established the "three steps" strategy and the "two one hundred year" target, from the "65" plan to the "13th Five-Year plan", which lasted for nearly 40 years, and the development of people's livelihood was included in the national development process. From the comprehensive solution of food and clothing to the realization of a well-off society in an all-round way. After entering the new era, the nineteen and the fourth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee of the party made a very clear strategic plan from now until the middle of this century, and will be concretely implemented in the five year development plan of 14th Five-Year and 15th Five-Year.

Over the past 70 years, the process of China's people's livelihood has been constantly adjusted in specific ways and measures. However, the institutional advantages of the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party, the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, the State governing system with Chinese characteristics and the mode of governance have yielded the fruits of a continuous leap in the quality of people's livelihood, reflecting the system embodied in the conditions of independent exploration and widespread absorption of state owned nutrients. The theoretical logic, historical logic and practical logic between the four, governance, livelihood and national transportation.

   Three, let people's livelihood security system continue to improve in a more mature and more stereotyped.

At present, the development of the people's livelihood is still not balanced enough. At the same time, new challenges are also testing the ability of national governance. These problems require continuous improvement of the people's livelihood security system. In the fourth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee, the decision made it very clear that we should uphold and improve the livelihood security system for urban and rural residents, and make overall arrangements for the reform and development of relevant systems. This indicates the direction for the maturity and finalization of the people's livelihood security system with Chinese characteristics.

In the historical process of upholding and improving the people's livelihood security system with Chinese characteristics, we need to focus on the following points.

Adhere to the "double orientation": clear goal orientation and problem oriented. On the one hand, taking the people as the center, constantly protecting and improving people's livelihood, improving people's well-being, and taking the road of common prosperity, promoting and ultimately realizing the free and comprehensive development of human beings, is the goal pursuit of the essence of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and must be adhered to and implemented in the specific livelihood security system for a long time. On the other hand, facing the problem of uneven development of the people's livelihood and the new challenges facing the new era, we will uphold and improve the people's livelihood security system as an important objective and task of further consolidating the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, and push ahead with the goal of making up for the short board of the people's livelihood as soon as possible, speeding up the optimization of institutional arrangements, and constantly meeting the growing needs of people's lives.

Follow the "four principles": first, do what we can and do what we can. We should not only ignore the behavior of ignoring the needs of the people's livelihood, but also avoid considering the orientation of short-term performance projects, and constantly promote the development of people's livelihood with positive, rational and sustainable efforts. The two is balancing urban and rural areas and promoting fairness. We must speed up the integration of people's livelihood security system with urban and rural areas, and further injecting fairness under the conditions of universal benefit, so as to continuously narrow the gap between urban and rural areas, between regions and between groups. The three is to build and share and advocate struggle. Only when everyone participates, everyone is responsible and everyone enjoys, can we create more material and spiritual wealth for the continuous improvement of people's livelihood and the sharing of development among all the people. Only by fully stimulating the internal driving force of the people's struggle and happiness can we truly form the atmosphere of mass entrepreneurship and innovation. Four is overall planning and coordinated development. In order to change the phenomenon that all the institutional arrangements directly related to people's livelihood are divorced from each other and split up and push forward, we should put all the systems into the people's livelihood security system and take into account their functional orientation and relationship. We should pursue the maximization and optimization of the comprehensive effects of people's livelihood as the starting point and end result, so as to promote the effective and coordinated development of the relevant systems.

Optimize the "five system": first, optimize the education system. It includes promoting the integration of compulsory education in urban and rural areas, promoting the fairness of educational opportunities and improving the quality of education. At the same time, we should solve the problems of imbalance in educational structure and imbalance in resource allocation, and build an educational system for lifelong learning among the whole people. Two is to optimize the employment system. We will improve the quality of employment in the same important position as the pursuit of full employment, improve the employment priority policy system, formulate a complete and equal employment policy, improve the labor relations consultation mechanism, safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of workers, and enable workers to live and work in peace and contentment. The three is to optimize the income distribution system. It includes improving the policy of distribution according to work and personal income tax, increasing the intensity of redistribution, and encouraging diligence to become rich. Four is to optimize the social security system. It includes accelerating the implementation of the basic old-age insurance nationwide plan, eliminating the personal insurance accounts of employees, gradually balancing the burden of financing, promoting the fair treatment of benefits, improving the comprehensive social assistance system, and building a multi-level social security system. Five is to optimize the medical and health system. We should speed up the development of public health, and let medical institutions return to the true colors of public welfare, so that medical supplies can follow the rules of the market and seek legitimate benefits through fair and reasonable competition, so as to achieve the benign interaction and common development between medical insurance, medical treatment and medicine.

To achieve "three pursuits": first, speed up the improvement of "seven people's livelihood". New progress has been made in the areas of children's education, learning and teaching, income from work, illness, medical care, old age, living and weak support. The two is to constantly satisfy "people's livelihood eight". It is necessary to meet the needs of people for better education, more stable work, more satisfactory income, more reliable social security, higher level medical and health services, more comfortable living conditions, more beautiful environment and richer spiritual and cultural life. Three is to continuously enhance the "three sense of people's livelihood". The people's sense of acquisition, happiness and sense of security are the core indicators to test the people's livelihood security system and comprehensively measure the progress of people's livelihood.

In short, the miracle of China's people's livelihood has proved the superiority of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics and the state governance system. However, there is no end to ensuring and improving people's livelihood, and constantly satisfying the needs of people for a better life, we must constantly optimize the existing institutional arrangements. As an important part of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, the people's livelihood security system needs continuous improvement in order to become more mature and more stereotyped. It will contribute to the development of human development and contribute to the new institutional civilization with Chinese characteristics while benefiting all the Chinese people.

(author: Professor of Renmin University of China, President of China Society for social security)

Author: Zheng Gongcheng       Editor: Administrator
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