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Hu Jun: Zhu Xi's reading of two books in the book of observation

Release time: 2020-05-18: Source:

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It is often the regrets of many philosophers that they can not be poets. The reason is that reason is often difficult to blend with passion. As a result, a good philosopher is hard to become a good poet. After all, poetry has always been criticized. But Zhu Xi seems to be an exception. In the sense of western philosophy, it is hard to say that he is a philosopher, but he is obviously a thinker or philosopher in Chinese traditional philosophical sense, and also an excellent poet.

In his deep thoughts, poetry originates from emotion and reason resides in nature. Although sex is different from love, it is by no means the same thing. Zhu Xi is very good at integrating the feelings and feelings in his poems. His book "reading two books" is such a masterpiece. He concealed his Neo Confucianism deeply behind the lines of the poem, so that it was difficult for the poem to be understood by the posterity. Therefore, he constantly misunderstood the true meaning of Zhu Xi's poem.

Let's take a look at his poems first.

Last night, the river was aquatic in spring, and the giant 10 Fen was light.

It has always been a waste of effort.

This poem is not difficult to understand literally. Because spring flows into the river, huge ships float on the water like a light feather. When the river runs dry, the giant ships are stranded in shallow water. Great efforts must be made to make them move. But now the spring water is vast, and boats are floating on the surface of the water.

But Zhu Xishi's intention is not only to depict the natural scenery, but to express certain philosophy by the description of scenery. What kind of philosophy does this poem express? The dictionary of Song poetry appreciation is like this: "the giant ships of the Song Dynasty need the big river and the sea so as not to be stranded, so that they can sail lightly and freely. If such a necessary condition is violated, violating their laws of sailing on water, it is necessary to use manpower to "go on", even if exerting people's soaring energy, it is still in vain. This is the objective meaning of the artistic image of this poem. The author's intention is not necessarily the same, but our understanding is not contrary to poetry. Annotates do not believe in poetry. But in my view, this explanation is far from the original intention of Zhu Xishi. Because annotates emphasize that we must not violate the laws of water navigation. It can be seen that the interpreter still stays in the external natural phenomena, but fails to really enter Zhu Xi's inner philosophical world. Only by understanding Zhu Xi's philosophy can we understand the real intention of this poem.

What needs special attention is that Zhu Xi's poem is due to the feeling of reading books. From this perspective, we can enter the artistic conception of Zhu Xi's poetry. In the poem, the so-called "giant ships" and "always spend in vain" are natural phenomena, but secretly refer to such a difficult and puzzled situation, which is hard reading, thinking in a thousand ways, and reasoning in books. But for a long time and hard thinking and exploration, the "last night" was clear and bright, and all the difficulties before it were solved. "Last night's waterborne waters on the riverside" refers to the sudden opening of the mind. "Giant ships" mean all kinds of difficulties and puzzles encountered in reading. What is the basis for such an interpretation?

Zhu Xi believed that human cognition is divided into two stages. The first stage is "the principle of being". It is necessary to go through the progressive stage of "one thing today, one tomorrow, one thing". Based on this stage, it is possible for us to enter the second stage of "catching up" and achieving great enlightenment. The first stage is the preparation or foundation of the second stage, and the second stage is the leap over the first stage. Zhu Xiru said: "the so-called knowledge of things in the grid, the desire to give our knowledge, is soon and poor. There is no knowledge of the spirit of the people. Only when the reason is not poor is there any knowledge. It is the beginning of a university that teaches scholars, that is, all things in the world, so that they can benefit from their known principles. As for the long time of exertion, and once we suddenly see through, the essence of all things is all the same. (Zhu Xi's "University chapters and sentences", see Zhu Xi's "four books and chapters and sentences collection", Zhonghua Book Company, 1983, P. 6-7). Obviously, the "big ships" and "wasted efforts" refer to the so-called "long exertion" situations encountered in the first stage. "Last night, the riverside is aquatic", "10 Fen light" and "this day is flowing freely" shows that after hard "hard time" efforts, all kinds of difficulties and puzzles have already disappeared. The thoughts in the book blend into one, and their thoughts are also elevated to the ultimate realm of great understanding and insight. In this way, Zhu Xi's original meaning is conformed to a few words.

Author:       Editor: Zhangyu
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