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Dang Guoying: scientifically understanding the influence of urban and rural housing patterns on epidemic prevention and control and public safety

Release time: 2020-05-18: Source: China Construction News reported

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Dang Guoying, researcher of Rural Development Institute, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences

How can the construction of urban and rural areas, especially the structure of urban and rural habitation, meet the needs of people's healthy life? This is one of the important topics that people think deeply about this epidemic. A representative view is that if people maintain the urban and rural social structure dominated by the rural population, it will help prevent the occurrence or expansion of new infectious diseases such as new crown pneumonia. This view is very one-sided. Criticizing urbanization and exaggerating the benefits of rural society is a "epidemic" in the intellectual world. It is worrying that some people use this pseudo knowledge to influence government decision-making.
Human life is faced with many difficulties, and epidemic diseases are only one of them. Different types of urban and rural population layout will also face different problems. There is no "population benefit pattern". However, from the perspective of the progress of human history, the highly urbanized population layout represents a higher standard of human civilization, reflecting the stronger survival ability of mankind. Even in response to epidemics, the highly urbanized population layout has advantages outweigh disadvantages.
As to whether the rural residential form is conducive to the prevention and control of epidemic diseases, we need to make specific analysis. Under the social and economic modernization and the urban-rural population layout dominated by urbanization, the rural housing pattern will certainly help control the spread of epidemic diseases. The characteristics of agricultural economic development are professional farmers scattered living. For example, if the scale of agricultural economy in China is placed in the United States, it is equivalent to only one or two specialized farmers in each natural village. Compared to the European countries with similar population density, there will not be a large population in a residential area in the agricultural area. If we can form similar rural population layout and habitation pattern, the conditions for containment of virus transmission will be much better.
However, the rural area under the two yuan structure of urban and rural areas is a village with an average number of families living in hundreds of households, which is not much good for epidemic prevention and control. Besides, the real villages in our country are mixed with the residents who have already separated from agriculture, and the rural acquaintance society has a relatively complete form. It is not easy to say that there is a common custom between the rural residents to cross the door and push cups to lift the disease. The bigger problem is that it is difficult to build a complete and effective public service facilities in rural areas. Historically, there is a regional gastrointestinal epidemic in rural areas of China.
It is envisaged that the problem of epidemic prevention and control can be solved by improving the rural infrastructure. The ideal is very plentiful and the reality is very skinny. Although it is hoped that every household of tens of households has some public service facilities, the cost of building and utilizing these facilities without economies of scale is huge. Of course, there are such settlements in Europe and the United States, but most of them are not agricultural population. Their income may exceed the average level of the city and have the ability to pay relatively expensive infrastructure operation costs. In our country, relying on state finance can not make about 3 million such residential areas enjoy the level of urban public services.
The survey found that the existing rural public facilities have problems of insufficient utilization and unsustainable maintenance costs. The current practice only slows down the speed of urbanization in our country. In the long run, massive investment in rural construction will not be effective. Fortunately, the state has effectively controlled the epidemic in the urban area, so that most of the agricultural areas in China are not infected by the virus. In fact, the mixed residence of agricultural residents and non-agricultural residents will easily spread the disease to the agricultural residents. Once the situation has happened, China's agricultural production will be greatly affected, and the seriousness of the problem will be far beyond the present.
Will high urbanization bring about conditions for increasing infectious diseases? This should also be analyzed in detail. From the perspective of the epidemic situation in Europe and America, the rapid transmission of disease is mainly related to the gathering activities and the lack of attention to protection. But their habitation is beneficial to epidemic prevention and control. Most of the residents live in single family houses, which is good for preventing infection. To eliminate this condition, the European and American attitude towards epidemic prevention and control will be much worse than it is now. Assuming that people's attitudes towards epidemic diseases remain unchanged, what will happen if they only return the level of urbanization in Europe and America to 100 years ago? Of course, it is even more frightening. The consequences of the 1918 European epidemic proved that the level of urbanization in Europe at that time was not as good as that in China. Therefore, we should not unilaterally believe that urbanization will aggravate the expansion of the epidemic.
Based on the above analysis, we should realize that it is very necessary to make a fundamental adjustment to the urban and rural construction in China. Three suggestions are put forward here: first, we must unswervingly push forward urbanization and at the same time change the living pattern of urban residents. The current brutal urban and rural land planning and management system has reduced the proportion of residential construction land to urban built-up area at a very low level (about 25%), resulting in serious problems of housing poverty and housing prices in China's cities. This is the source of a series of social and economic problems in China. Serious urban and rural "household separation" phenomenon leads to the annual population movement tide, and this is the reason why the "resumption of work" is difficult. Urban residents are crowded in high-rise residential buildings, and the ban on outbreaks caused by epidemic prevention and control has made residents' "high-rise living syndrome" more serious, exacerbating the residents' psychological conflict against epidemic prevention and control. All of these are related to the urban and rural land planning and management system. We need to reflect deeply on this outbreak.
Two, in the process of urbanization, we should vigorously promote the construction of small cities and make rational distribution of small cities, so as to ensure that most of our farmers can enter cities in half an hour. This is an international experience, which basically ensures that agricultural residents and urban residents share the city's public services and form a "accessibility" provision for public services. Under this condition, it can also be considered that the urbanization rate is 100%, and the overall quality of life of the agricultural residents will be higher than that of the urban level.
Three, we must attach importance to the construction of small residential areas in agricultural areas. It is predicted that when the number of agricultural residents in China is reduced to less than 30 million households, the population flow rate will slow down and form a relatively stable layout of urban and rural population. At this time, the average size of agricultural residential areas in China can be below 10 households. If designed properly, such residential areas will be conducive to the prevention and control of epidemics, thus contributing to the safety of agricultural economy. This will become an important supporting point for national security.

Author: Dang Guoying       Editor in chief: Yang Zonglin
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